1.1 Background of the Study
According to Klarer (2004:1),
literature is referred to as the entirety of written expression, with the
restriction that not every written document can be categorized as literature in
the more exact sense of the word. A work of literature also develops an element
of entertaining that gives pleasure to everyone who reads it. It carries
messages that can bring various values in human life such as education,
In progress of modern and post-modern
literature, literature is currently influenced by contemporary style which
obtains advance to express literary works in technological innovations for
adaption of literary works such as short story, fiction and non-fiction novel
are made into movie (Borges, 2014: 136).
Several literary works have been made in
many forms. One of them is a movie .Movies, also known as films. According to Hornby (2010:553),Movie
is a series of moving pictures which is recorded with sound that tells a story,
shown on television or the cinema or Movie Theater .In the movie, character is the important elements. Without character
there is should not be a movie. Characters, Plot, Setting is some of the
element of a movie. According to Hornby (2010: 234) ,Character is all the
qualities and features that make a person, groups of people, and places
different from others .There are three primary
character such as the protagonist or main character, the antagonist or
main villain, and the supporting characters. Main character is the character with
most obstacles and normally the one with most screen time.
The main character of
the story, does not only show us the
world of theirs which were created fictionally, perhaps one of the most
indispensable job of these main characters is to open up a path, a door to
which the emotions of the viewers are linked. A main character brings the
reader or viewer to feel the different feelings their feeling in each obstacle
they encounter. These main characters provide relevancy to the story and is
usually the key to everything that happens within the story. Each happenings is
also determined to be positive or negative depending on its impact to the main
character and how he or she is affected from it.
In this study, a movie entitled My
Sister’s Keeper was chosen to be analyzed. It was an American drama
film directed by Nick Cassavetes. This study focused on Anna
Fitzgerald as the main character. Anna who is casted by Abigail Breslin is
presented a young girl who donate compatible organs, blood, and tissue to help
her sister suffering from acute promyelocytic leukemia, but then she
realize that she could not live as she wanted to and tells her parents that she
does not want to be a donor and proceeds to sue them for medical
emancipation and she fight for the right of her own body and life.
The story would not be very exciting
without the role of the main character. The central thought of the Author is
most likely expressed through the main character. The analysis of the main
character is one of the important aspects of fiction story, and from the
analysis, various kinds of human behavior which sometimes can be seen in real
life is noticeable. The writer choose this topic because it is interesting to
analyzed and this movie tells us to be a strong, and brave person to fight for
our right and everyone deserved a life like they wanted to be .
1.2 Problems of the Study
Based on the background of the study
above, the research problems that arise in this study are formulated as
the main character is presented in the movie My Sister’s Keeper based on the
physiological, sociological, and the physiological dimension?
is the method that used to analyze the main character in My Sister’s Keeper
is the characterization of the main character in the movie My Sister’s Keeper?
1.3 Aims of Study
Related to the problem of study
above, specifically the aim of the study are:
identify how the main character is presented in the movie My Sister’s Keeper
based on the physiological, sociological, and the physiological dimension
identify the method that used to analyze the main character in My Sister’s
identify the characterization of the main character in the movie My Sister’s
1.4 Scope of Discussion
Based on the problems and aims of study, this study related
to the three dimensional aspect of character and characterization. This study
was limited into such discussion: (i) This study analyzed character based on
three dimensional aspect, they are Physiological, Sociological,
and Psychological Dimension. This theory is proposed by Lajos Egri in The Art
of Dramatic Writing (1946:47-51). (ii) This study also analyzed the characterization in the
main character using theory from Wellek
and Warren (1976: 227). They divided the characterization of a character into
four types, they are static character, dynamic character, and flat character
and round character.
In this study, the application of
research method was very important. The research method was concerned with
three aspects: data source, method and technique of collecting data, and method
and technique of analyzing data. However, the method applied in this study used
the documentary method, with the collected data from some books and literature
which were related to the topic, especially from My Sister’s Keeper Movie which
was then analyzed. Some explanations that related to the data are shown below:
1.5.1 Data Source
In this method the data source was
collected from primary data that taken from a movie entitled My Sister’s Keeper
.It was an American drama film directed by Nick Cassavetes. Anna
who is casted by Abigail Breslin is presented a young girl who donate
compatible organs, blood, and tissue to help her sister suffering from acute
promyelocytic leukemia, but then she realize that she could not live as
she wanted to and tells her parents that she does not want to be a donor and
proceeds to sue them for medical emancipation and she fight for the
right of her own body and life. The
secondary data was taken from various books, undergraduate theses, journal and
articles that related to main character analysis. All of this data is indeed.
1.5.2 Method and
Technique of Collecting Data
In this study the data was collected by watching
the movie My Sister’s Keeper repeatedly
and intensively in order to comprehend the script of this movie. Taking a note
to finding out and obtaining the information about the statement or part of
script which has relation to the topic of discussion.
1.5.3 Method and
technique of analyzing data
Qualitative method will
be used to analyze the data. The analysis will use Lajos Egri’s theory (1946)
as the main theory. The method will be concern of several steps, which are as
Classifying the data which
concern with the presentation of the main character .The
data will be in form of sentences or phrases and will be quoted.
Categorizing the data based on
whether it belongs to three dimension
CONCEPTS, AND THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK
this section, there are three reviews of theses by the English scholars and one
The first thesis is adopted from An Analysis of Giselle’s Character in
Enchanted Movie, written by Hayat Hasanah (2009).
The undergraduate thesis used the theory
of structuralism which proposed by Alison Assiter. The movie entitled
Enchanted were chosen as the data source of the study and he analyzed the main
character in enchanted movie. This study discusses about the characteristics of
Giselle as the main character in Enchanted,
a girl who lives in the fairy tale and the real world. The characteristics of
Giselle’s are namely dreamer, optimist, romantic, innocence, independent, and
mature. The writer concludes that character of Giselle in Enchanted movie is dynamic because the main character has a lot of
experiences of change in character and the way of her mind about life and love.
research focuses on character of the main character Giselle in Enchanted movie.
difference between the undergraduate thesis and this study is the undergraduate
thesis used the theory of structuralism which proposed by Alison Assiter ,
while this study will
used theory taken from Rene Wellek and Austin
Warren (1976) is used. This theory classify
about the types of character. The second theory is from Lajos Egri in
Sukada “Beberapa Aspek Tentang Sastra “(1987). The theory explained about three
dimensional aspects such as psychological, sociological, and physiological
dimension. Another differences is the undergraduate thesis analyze about a
movie which has a romantic comedy story, while this study analyze about a movie
which has a sad story. But this thesis has relation with this study because it
is also focused on analyzing a main character in a movie.
The second thesis is adopted from Analysis of Main Character in Bruce Almighty
Movie written by faisal (2011). In this thesis he used theory of
personality traits by Costa & McCrae. In
this analysis, the writer concluded that Bruce Nolan as main character. Bruce
Nolan is a television field reporter for Eyewitness Newson WKBW-TV in Buffalo,
NewYork and he also as a God for 7 days. From the theory used, the writer found
the characteristic of Bruce is ambitious
and Neuroticism of Bruce is anger, complaining and blaming person, selfish, and
jealous .It’s all happened when he loses his job and beaten up by gang of hoods
and crashes his car.Then he complains to God that he is treating him (Bruce)
unfairly. God responses and meet him in human form and God challenges Bruce to
handle the God’s job if he can do it better than God by give him divine power.
From the analysis, the writer concludes that Bruce as main character has a
dynamic and round character. He has much bad characterization than positive one
in the film. From the beginning of story until the end of story. The
research will be focused on the intrinsic analysis through analysis character
and characteristic in the film of Bruce Almighty by Tom Shadyac viewed from
personality traits theory by Costa an McCrae.
The undergraduate thesis has
relation with this study because it is also focused on analyzing a main
character in a movie. And both of this study used the same method which is
qualitative method .The differences of the thesis and this study is in the
theory, the undergraduate thesis used a theory of personality traits by Costa & McCrae, while
this study will used the theory from Rene Wellek and Austin
Warren (1976) and Lajos Egri in Sukada “Beberapa Aspek Tentang Sastra “(1987).
The weakness of this undergraduate thesis are the format of the thesis is
different with this study, it is make the writer confused.
The last thesis is adopted by Characterization of the Main Character in
the Movie “The Unborn” Based on Physiological, Sociological, and Psychological
Dimension by Yefta Hellen (2012). The theories used are taken from theories
of characterization which proposed by Rene Wellek and Austin Warren (1976) and
theory of three dimension proposed by Egri in Sukada (1987). This study focused
on Casey Beldon as the main character. Casey as the main character was analyzed
based on physiological, sociological, and psychological dimension in her life.
Sociological and psychological dimension were strongly related in process of
Casey’s interaction in society. Meanwhile, physiological dimension is shown how
Casey’s appearance which seen by other people in her life. Casey who is acted
by Odette Yustman is presented as a young woman who did not know that she had a
twin brother years ago who died while he was in the womb. Then, she experienced
metaphysical soul of her twin brother “Jumby”.Casey was convinced
that something unnatural was going on. She checked things belonging her mother
and she found an article in which “Sofi Kozma “was underlined. She also found a
photo of a pregnant lady looking at her reflection in the mirror. Casey’s
mother twins and the unborn was trying to kill the born (Casey) and died giving
in to the fear. She explained the Jewish myth of ‘dybbuk’ means the soul of the
dead person that has been barred from entering the heaven, who endlessly
wanders in the land of the worlds and tried to find a new body or torments. The
ending of this movie is Casey being pregnant with twins.
The similarity between this
undergraduate thesis and this study is both of this study analyze the main
character in a movie. And another similarity of this thesis and this study is
in the theories used are taken from Rene Wellek and Austin Warren (1976) and
theory of three dimension proposed by Egri in Sukada (1987). The differences
between this studies are the undergraduate thesis analyzing a movie which has a
horror story while this study analyzing a movie which has a sad story.
The national journal review related
to this study is taken from journal of English Education: The character analysis of Glen Hansard in
Once Film written by Nani Rosmani (2013).
This article analyzed the
characterization of talented
actor named Glen Hansard in
film. This research mainly
investigated two aspects involved two character
analyses of the main actor,
Hansard .The first
one was the construction of Hansard’s characters and the second one was the effect between his
character and another actors’ character. The study
showed that Hansard’s characters were constructed by five factors:
from what the character did and said,
what the other characters said about him, how the appearance and its
milieu were, influencing one and another.
The study also found that he had struggle, visionary, ambitious, introvert, sensitive, straightforward and
curious characters, but more characters
that showed strong characters of his
were struggle, visionary and ambitious, because the scenes reflected
The similarity between this study
and this article has the same topic which is analyzing the main character of a
movie. Both of this study used the same method which is
Qualitative method, but this article
used 2 techniques of the study that was related to Sugiono’s (2011) and Sugiyono,
(2011:315) .The weakness of this article is there is no theories that writer
used on analyzing this article.
There are some subject that are
going to be explained in this concepts. The concept that are presented in this
study are the concept of character and the concept of characterization.
Concept of Character
to Wellek and Warren (1955:227), “character is the figure that participates in
the action or the people who play roles in the story and it is expected to be
natural or lifelike.” A character is the participant who makes a speech or an
action in order to make the story runs as the author’s want.
Concept of Characterization
Characterization is the process and
the way of describing or portraying human characters in a story, because and
individual presents himself through speech and action which could be recognized
through those instrument. According to DiYanni (2001:65) states that
characterization is the means by which author reveal and present character.
Character has three dimension as the basic structures, which are: psychological,
sociological, and physiological dimension (Egri in Sukada, (1987:135). The physiological
dimension presented by physical appearance or identity such as appearance, age,
sex. Sociological dimension relate to social background such as religion,
nationality, background, and family background. Psychological dimension based
on psychological aspect such as ambition, mentality, attitude and emotional.
This study is focused on describing
the main character in “My Sister’s Keeper” movie. There are some theories that
are used as the theoretical framework which support this study. Literary theories which will be used here
taken from Lajos Egri in The Art of Dramatic Writing
(1946:47-51) .The theory explained about three dimensional aspects such as psychological,
sociological, and physiological dimension as the bone structure of a character.
The second theory that used is Rene Wellek and Austin Warren (1976). This
theory classify about the
Theory of Physiological , Sociological ,
to Lajos Egri in The Art of Dramatic Writing (1946:47-51) he proposes the three
dimension as the bound structure of the character. It can be defined as the
dimension of a character is observed through sex, age, physical appearance such
as shape of body, the height and weight, the defect: abnormalities, birthmarks,
the color of skin and hair.
2. Sociological Dimension
Sociology was the second dimension to be studied.
Sociological aspect is anything from the environment which gave some feedback
to the development of one’s characters such as social class status, education,
religion, home life, race nationality, and place in community, amusement,
dimension is anything which related to the psychological condition of the
character or stated as the inside things in human being such as abilities,
qualities, temperaments, attitude toward life, complexes, introvert or
extrovert, ambitions, IQ, and frustration.
Characterization is step by step in literature used to
highlight and explain the details about a character in a story using
the literary techniques to reveal the nature of a character. In the theory of
characterization, the writer used the theory from Wellek and Warren to analyze
how the character will go in the story. According to Wellek and Warren (1976:
227), they divide the characterization of a character into four types, they are
static character, dynamic character, and flat character and round character.
They can be defined as follows:
Static character is the character who
does not develop in the story and cannot changed from the beginn9ng until the
end of the story.
Dynamic character is the character who
experiences development in the story and can changed from the beginning until
the end of the story.
Simple or flat character is the
character who show a stereotype character and present the character in one
single of attitude. It’s shows a good or bad side of person
Round character is the character which
described having more than one character. Round character is called complex
character as well, because it is in life not simply embodiments of single
Theory of Characterization Method
the characterization, the author must choose not only the type of character for
portrayal the character. However, he must choose method of characterization as
a way for presenting the character. Kenney (1966: 34-36), classify that there
are five methods that can be used in presenting the character in story, that
1 Discursive method
method means the author tells the readers about the character and she or he
even mentions the disapproval and approval of the character. The advantages of
this method are economy and simplicity. The author will quickly finish the job
of characterization and could go to on the other things.
2 Dramatic method
dramatic method is a method of showing rather than telling. In the dramatic
method, the author allows the character to reveal themselves to us through
their own words and action. The advantages of dramatic method could be obvious.
If the dramatic method is compared to the discursive method, it is more
lifelike and invites the readers’ active for their participation in the theory.
3 Character on others
on other characters means one character talks about another character in a
story. However, the reader must remember that this type of information which
received is not reliable necessarily, because what A says about B may probably
tell us more about A than B in the story.
4 The contextual method
the point of view of contextual method, it could mean the device of suggesting
character by the verbal context which surrounds the character. It could be
explained specifically that a character is described constantly in terms
appropriate to a beast of prey, the reader may conclude that the author is
trying to tell him or her something.
method means the applying of all the methods or more than one method in
accordance with the degrees of effectiveness to be achieved. The reader will
rarely find a work if the fiction in which merely one of the methods outlined
above is employed. Indeed, the contextual method could be used effectively
merely in combination with other methods. In evaluating characterization
methods of author, the reader must keep in mind about the appropriateness of
the author’s methods to the overall design of the story.