1) and pigeons. All three psychologist had

1)     
Ivan
Pavlov, John Watson, and B.F. Skinner all studied behaviorism, in which, they
studied all on animals. All three psychologist encouraged the study of
observable behaviors more so than mental processes.  John Watson, the American psychologist, was
the founder of the school for behaviorism. Ivan Pavlov, the Russian
psychologist, performed observations on the behavior of animals. B. F. Skinner,
the American psychologist, utilized reinforcements and/or punishments to outline
the behavior of rats and pigeons. All three psychologist had their own unique
was of specializing in behaviorism. The main objective was to discover the fundamentals
principles of learning, how behaviors are developed and modified with
environmental influences.

2)      The two different types of messages
that can be communicated by neurotransmitters are excitatory and inhibitory.
These two messages can be communicated to a postsynaptic neuron. The excitatory
message increases the possible chance that the postsynaptic neuron will trigger
and produce action potential. The inhibitory message decreases the possible
chance that the postsynaptic neuron will trigger. One thing that is very
important to know about the excitatory and inhibitory is that if the synaptic
neuron receives a message quickly, the two messages cancel each other out. The
kind and number of neurotransmitter chemicals that glue to the receptor sites
in the attached neurons, the postsynaptic neurons less likely to activate
themselves. If the result is a decent number of excitatory, the neurons
decreases, generates an action potential, then its released to its own
neurotransmitters.   

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3)      The three strategies that I’m going
to talk about are acupuncture, relaxation & mediation, and
counterirritation. First, acupuncture is a Chinese medical procedure to where
needles are inserted into the human body to relieve pain. The needles are
inserted in a specific part of the human body to twirl, heat, or stimulate an
electric present. It’s said that researchers are still unaware of how the
needles alleviate the pain. Secondly, relaxation & mediation can eliminate
pain by deep breathing: you will inhale deeply and exhale slowly. This is said
to release the tension in your body. Through research it is said that mediation
is effective in decreasing pain. Lastly, counterirriation is a technique that
has been used to decrease pain with a hostile sensation slightly irritating and
stimulating.  

4)      Attention is known to be the
awareness of someone or something. The main two characteristics of attention
are limited capacity and selective. Attention has limited capacity because we
can’t emphasis on all the things that are surrounding us on a daily basis. With
having limited capacity a human can also focus their attention on things more
relevant.  Selective attention is like
concentrating on a spotlight. When focusing on a spotlight you tune out
everything around you and solely focus on that one particular element. One
solid selective example would be the cocktail party effect. If you’re at a
party you’re still able to ignore the noise and maintain a hearing stream of
your focus point. With that being said, you’re still able to know what’s going
on in your surrounds at the noisy party, but still be able to concentrate on
your main focus.