Abstract— effect to the surrounding environment by

Abstract— Today the use of plastic waste (high density
and low density polyethylene) has become an unavoidable entity of human life which
is continuously accumulating in the environment is becoming worldwide increasing
ecological threat. Accumulation can be hazardous and may cause leads to some environmental
disturbances. Traditional methods used for polymer degradation including landfill,
incineration and chemical treatment are causing harmful effect to the
surrounding environment by causing hazardous effect on living things due to its
non degrading nature. A better idea for the complete degradation of plastic has
not yet been identified still its disposal is a major problem. However to solve
this worldwide issue biological mode of polythene degradation may be discovered
and developed in the upcoming future. Biodegradation is an effective option for
eco friendly degradation of plastic waste because biodegradable plastics are
environment friendly; they have an expanding range of potential application and
are driven by the growing use of plastics in packaging. In recent years,
considerable attention has been focused on biodegradability of polymeric
materials mainly due to the pollution in the environment created by plastic
waste and no protocol has yet been developed to feasibly degrade polyethylene by
biodegradation on commercial scale. It has become a worldwide major problem. In
this research investigation, different species of microalgae like green algae,
blue-green algae and diatoms were isolated for possible biodegradation.

Polyethylenes are carbon and hydrogen polymers, exceptional resistant to
biological decay. It is estimated that polythene would degrade less than 0.5%
over 100 years, degradation mainly depends on temperature, light exposure,
oxygen and moisture availability two possible approaches to reduce the ‘plastic
waste’ are: (1) to develop biodegradable commodity plastics from fossil fuel
and /or renewable resources building blocks (hydro-biodegradable) or
reengineering of full carbon backbone commodity polymers (Oxo-biodegradable),
(2) to identify potential micro-algae  and its toxins to develop protocol to
effectively biodegrade the polymeric materials. The present study is an attempt
to assess algal diversity in plastic contaminated area using molecular approach
and to isolate potential indigenous microalgae and its toxins for the efficient
degradation of plastics. Biodegradation is promoted by various microalgae and
simple or multiple toxin systems, with the enzymes being synthesized by
microalgae involving reduce the energy of activation and weaken the chemical
bonds in the polymer, thereby decreasing the energy required for degradation.
The production and consumption of plastics, in the last decade has recorded a
remarkable increase in the scientific and Industrial interest in
environmentally degradable polymers and relevant plastic items. Since the
ultimate fate has to be their conversion by microalgae into metabolites such as
CO2, H2O and new cell biomass (i.e. mineralization).

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