General information about the job: As the vehicle population reached more than 700 million. legion metropoliss sing rapid industrialisation started to endure from air pollution. Some of them reduced the air pollution degree ; nevertheless there are still some that are considered to be the most contaminated metropoliss in the universe. Introduction of the job: One of them is Mexico City. Harmonizing to Forbes. Mexican capital is one of the five dirtiest metropoliss of the universe. Industrial growing of the metropolis. population roar. which grew from 3 million in 1950 to 20 million today. and the proliferation of vehicles in the metropolis contributed to the Mexico City’s current air quality. Narrowing down the job: However. with the transit proliferation lending to about half of the city’s entire emanations. several solutions have to be considered in order to cut down the air pollution in the metropolis. Thesis statement: The authorities should pattern legal ordinances and favor the evolvement of environmentally friendly engineering and fuel in order to cut down the air pollution degree in Mexico City. II. Background
A. Identify the problem/ show that the job exists: Peoples suffer from assorted diseases and the environment is being damaged ( research ) . B. What caused the job: Air pollution is chiefly caused by vehicles. C. The effects of the job: Air pollution can hold serious effects for the human wellness every bit good as badly damage the ecosystem. III. Solution 1
Topic sentence: One of the possible solutions is to go on to implement legal ordinances refering air pollution bar. Give evidences to the proposed solution ( e. g. this job has been solved someplace else ; experts suggest this solution… ) : The air pollution has been perceptibly decreased due to legal ordinances and governmental plans like PIICA. PROAIRE and PORAIRE III Describe your solution: Diminish taxis
• As taxis are diminished. less harmful gas emanations are produced Disadvantages:
• Taxis are convenient
• Taxi driver as a occupation
Topic sentence: Another possible solution is to go through a jurisprudence on telecommuting. Give evidences to the proposed solution ( e. g. this job has been solved someplace else ; experts suggest this solution… ) : Less gas emanations on telecommuting yearss ( research ) Describe your solution: Pass a jurisprudence on telecommuting
• Can be implemented now. as it does non necessitate any expanded planning. design and building ; • Is comparatively cheap to implement ;
• Expands personal picks instead than curtailing them. by offering them more flexibleness in work and life style. Disadvantages:
• May incite legal issues between organisation and employers • Lack of interaction with colleagues
• Not all occupations are suited for telecommuting
Topic sentence: The last. but non the least possible solution is to replace gasolene use in the metropolis with H fuel. Give evidences to the proposed solution ( e. g. this job has been solved someplace else ; experts suggest this solution… ) : The research indicates that use of H fuel will decidedly diminish the air pollution degree. Describe your solution: Hydrogen should replace gasolene. Advantages:
• Reduction in air pollution due to zero emanations
• Hydrogen is abundant ( renewable beginning )
• Hydrogen is expensive to bring forth
• Hydrogen refueling Stationss building require large sums of money VI.
Mexico City is frequently said to be the most contaminated metropolis in the universe. It surely does present serious environmental menaces to its ain endurance as a metropolis. but it affects regional and planetary air quality degrees as good. Therefore. specific steps have to be taken in order to cut down the air pollution degree. There are some basic solutions that could be used. like continue implementing legal ordinances. go through a low on teleworking and usage H fuel alternatively of gasolene. All of these have already been implemented and we know that they will work for the environment. Therefore. the authorities should implement these solutions and halt the air pollution in Mexico City. Air pollution in Mexico City
As the vehicle population reached more than 700 million worldwide. legion metropoliss sing rapid industrialisation started to endure from air pollution ( Walsh. 1999 ) . The degree of air pollution in any metropolis is a planetary concern. The ground is that air can go freely from topographic point to topographic point ; accordingly. the contaminated air from one metropolis can go to another. The contaminated air has legion negative effects for human wellness and besides badly amendss the ecosystem. Some of the metropoliss reduced the air pollution degree ; nevertheless there are still some that are considered to be the most contaminated metropoliss in the universe. One of them is Mexico City. Harmonizing to Forbes. the Mexican capital is one of the five dirtiest metropoliss of the universe ( Luck. 2008 ) . The authorities and people have take steps in order to cut down the air pollution in Mexico City before it is excessively late. The authorities should pattern legal ordinances and favor the use of H fuel alternatively of gasolene in order to cut down the air pollution degree in Mexico City. Mexico City is one of the world’s largest metropolitan countries. incorporating more than 20 million dwellers. 3. 5 million vehicles. and 35. 000 industries ( McKinley et al. . 2005 ) .
More than 20 % of Mexico’s full population lives in its capital and more than 30 % of the country’s industrial end product is produced here ( Edgerton et Al. . n. d. ) . Although Mexico City is considered one of the world’s largest metropoliss. it is still turning at a rate transcending 3 % yearly. Furthermore. the figure of vehicles daily going on its streets makes up more than three million ( Edgerton. et Al. . n. vitamin D ) . All the factors listed above contribute to Mexico City’s hapless air quality. Mexico City is a perfect illustration of one of the burgeoning metropoliss that experience terrible air pollution. The ozone concentration in Mexico City is one of the highest in the universe. being more than four times higher than the recognized norms. Particulate affair. sulfur dioxide. C monoxide and some other harmful gases besides exceed the Mexican wellness consultative degree ( Walsh. 1999 ) . Nevertheless. comprehensive air quality direction plans since 1990 have contributed to major decreases in the concentrations of some pollutants such as lead. C monoxide and S dioxide ( Molina & A ; Molina. n. d. ) . Sulfur in Diesel fuel has been reduced from 0. 5 % to 0. 05 % .
Many old coachs and trucks of Mexico City were replaced by newer 1s powered by more modern and cleaner engines. In add-on. leadless fuel was introduced at that clip to do the vehicle emanations comparatively cleaner ( Edgerton et Al. n. d. ) . Although the above steps contributed to a little positive alteration in Mexico City’s air quality. serious air pollution jobs still persist. The hapless quality of air is the consequence of several factors: emanations from the burning of fossil fuels in motor vehicles and for industrial procedures. energy production. high dust degrees due to local buildings. population growing ( Molina & A ; Molina. n. d. ) . Those human demands on the ecosystem are altering the landscape with of import atmospheric effects every bit good as doing menace to human wellness. Peoples suffer from assorted diseases get downing from undistinguished 1s like concerns. sickness. and allergic reactions to more serious 1s like chronic respiratory disease. lung malignant neoplastic disease. bosom disease. and even damage to the encephalon. nervousnesss. liver. or kidneys ( “How can aerate pollution hurt my wellness? ” . n. d. ) .
Although it is non possible to find the entire impact of Mexico City’s hapless air quality on public wellness. McKinley et Al. ( 2005 ) calculated that merely a 10 % decrease of particulate affair in the air would salvage 3. 000 lives and 10. 000 new instances of chronic bronchitis each twelvemonth. and that decrease of ozone would salvage 300 lives. As about 80 % of particulate affair and nitrogen oxide. 45 % of volatile organic compounds. and 30 % of S dioxide come from nomadic beginnings. their emissions’ degree should be reduced ( McKinley et al. . 2005 ) . One of the possible solutions to cut down air pollution from vehicles is to go on implementing legal ordinances refering air pollution bar. As mentioned above. Mexico City’s authorities has taken several steps and attempted assorted plans in order to diminish the degree of air pollution in the metropolis. The first program Programa Integral parity EL Control de la Contaminacio?n Atmosfe?rica ( PICCA ) was started in 1990 and had major attainments. including the debut of bipartisan catalytic convertors. the phase-out of leaded gasolene. and the constitution of vehicle emanations criterions ( McKinley et al. . 2005 ) .
The 2nd plan. PROAIRE 1995-2000 ( Programa para Mejorar la Calidad del Aire en el Valle de Me?xico – Program to Improve Air Quality in the Valley of Mexico ) had other major achievements. such as the debut of methyl third butyl quintessence ( MTBE ) in gasolene to better burning efficiency. and carried out limitations on the aromatic content of fuels and on the S content in industrial fuel ( McKinley et al. . 2005 ) . These plans have had important impact on decrease of air pollution in the metropolis. That is why more of these sorts of plans should be implemented in Mexico City. so the metropolis can eventually cut down the degrees of air pollution to acceptable norms. For case. the authorities should implement policies refering taxis. Harmonizing to Connolly ( 1999 ) . taxis and single autos that replaced traditional coachs are the most polluting of all signifiers of conveyance. Approximately 110. 000 taxis “circulate the streets of Mexico City” ( McKinley et al. . 2005. p. 1955 ) .
Because of the big figure of kilometres traveled each twenty-four hours by taxis. their emanations are rather high. Even though taxis history for merely 3. 4 % of Mexico City’s vehicle fleet. the their emanations make 3. 6 % of particulate affair. 11. 5 % of S dioxide. 10. 7 % of C monoxide. 10. 2 % of nitrogen oxide and 14 % of volatile organic compounds of all transit related emanations ( McKinley et al. . 2005 ) . Therefore. all the taxis around the metropolis have to be diminished. Alternatively of taxis. the authorities should supply the occupants with more coachs and minibuses. The advantage of this policy is obvious: if there would be no taxis travelling in the metropolis. less harmful gases would be emitted. Furthermore. the analysis made by McKinley et Al. ( 2005 ) suggests that a turnover of the cab fleet due to its size and age would profit from over $ 70 million United states in decreased wellness impacts from air pollution. and would besides profit from fuel nest eggs. whose costs summed up together. is greater than this measure’s investing cost. However. there are several drawbacks to this solution.
First. taxis are really convenient for people who do non hold their ain auto to go around more expeditiously or to go to topographic points. which locations are non known to you. For case. taxis are really good for the tourers who do non cognize the metropolis. Furthermore. most people earn money by working as a cab driver and entire prohibition of taxis would strip them of their manner of gaining money. Therefore. most people might differ with this policy and solution by and large. Another possible solution is to go through the jurisprudence on telecommuting. Telecommuting or telework fundamentally means working from a topographic point instead than traditional office environment. normally from place. The distance traveled by a individual is a important factor in air pollution because less distance traveled. less unwanted gases are emitted. As telecommuters work from place. they tend to go less frequently. The research indicates that on the teleworking yearss. the distance traveled by vehicles is decreased by 76 % . Consequently. there are fewer gas emanations ; to be more precise. there is a decrease by 64 % of entire organic gases. 63 % of C monoxide and 73 % of oxides of N ( Sampath. Saxena & A ; Mokhtarian. 1991 ) .
Other advantages of telecommuting are that it can be implemented now. as it does non necessitate any expanded planning. design and building ; it is comparatively cheap to implement ; it expands personal picks instead than curtailing them. by offering them more flexibleness in work and life style ( Sampath et al. . 1991 ) . However. some employers and employees would differ with this solution because there are some disadvantages. First. telecommuting may motivate legal issues between organisation and employers. Some of the issues they may confront are workplace safety and compensation issues ( Mills. Wong-Ellison. Werner & A ; Clay. 2001 ) . The organisation can non vouch employee’s safety because employee works out of the office. And if any accident happened to the employee. the organisation would non desire to counterbalance employee’s medical disbursals because the employee can non turn out that the accident occurred in the range of employment. Second. deficiency of interaction with colleagues and isolation from society due to telecommuting. can hold negative affects on individuals’ behaviour and attitudes every bit good as can take to negative effects. like anxiousness. depression. and even physical complaints ( Gainey. Kelley & A ; Hill. 1999 ) .
Furthermore. non all occupations are suited for telecommuting and some employers dislike oversing employees they can non see ( Mills. et Al. . 2001 ) . Nevertheless. teleworking should be considered as one of the possible solution. because it is a perfect manner to cut down vehicle going during the twenty-four hours. accordingly cut downing air pollution degrees. The last. but non the least possible solution is to replace gasolene use in the metropolis with H fuel. The transit sector is presently devouring gasolene and Diesel at high rates. More than half of the globally used oil is used for transit ( Kouroussis & A ; Karimi. 2006 ) . The harmful emanations to the environment are due to its use. Therefore. alternate fuels should be used more. Some types of alternate fuels are bioalcahol ( methyl alcohol. ethyl alcohol ) . biodiesel and H. Kouroussis and Karimi ( 2006 ) compared the fuels listed above and came to decision that the usage of H as a fuel would be the most good 1. A passage from fossil fuels to hydrogen would diminish the air pollution degree because about zero emanations occur. with H2O being the lone byproduct. In add-on. H is the most abundant component on the Earth. so at that place should non be concerns about running out of its stocks.
Furthermore. auto industries should bring forth more cars with a hydrogen-powered internal burning engine. Currently. BMW is the lone 1. BMW besides made the car to be powered either by H or gasolene. as the handiness of H refueling Stationss is low ( Kouroussis & A ; Karimi. 2006 ) . However. there are several disadvantages to this solution. First. H made from electrolysis of H2O is really expensive. At 25 °C. 65 watt-hours are needed to electrolyze one mole of H2O. which is 4. 8kWh of electricity to bring forth one three-dimensional metre of H. This electricity comes from the alternator which of class is powered by the engine. which uses energy ( Kouroussis & A ; Karimi. 2006 ) . So. fuel economic system is decreased by the same means you are seeking to better fuel economic system. But there is an alternate manner to bring forth H. which is to divide the H2O molecules through the usage of air current or solar energy. what is less expensive ( Kouroussis & A ; Karimi. 2006 ) . Another disadvantage is that the figure of H refueling Stationss is really low. So. if single runs out of the gas. it will be hard to happen a station to refuel the car instantly. To build new H gas Stationss will necessitate the authorities to apportion immense sums of money.
Weinert ( 2006 ) estimated a H station building to cost from $ 500. 000 to over $ 5 million. depending on station size ( 30 kg/day – 1. 000 kg/day ) . This sum includes the capital costs. installing costs. feedstock costs and fixed operating costs. Despite the disadvantages. bring forthing and utilizing H alternatively of gasolene holds the promise of pollution decrease in Mexico City. Mexico City is frequently said to be the most contaminated metropolis in the universe. It surely does present serious environmental menaces to its ain endurance as a metropolis. but it affects regional and planetary air quality degrees as good. Therefore. specific steps have to be taken in order to cut down the air pollution degree. There are some basic solutions that could be used. like continue implementing legal ordinances. go through a low on teleworking and usage H fuel alternatively of gasolene. All of these have already been implemented and we know that they will work for the environment. Therefore. the authorities should implement these solutions and halt the air pollution in Mexico City.
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