This is a reappraisal about the Yanomamo by Napoleon Chagnon. The Wadsworth Cengage Learning group. in California in the twelvemonth 2009. published this edition of the book. He published more than five editions and it is normally used as an introductory text in university degree anthropology categories. The Yanomamo are a group of autochthonal tribal Amazonians that live in the boundary line country between Venezuela and Brazil. Chagnon lived and studied with the Yanomamo from the mid-1960s to the 1990s. I plan to depict the physical environment of the Yanomamo society. their subsistence schemes. the manner that they communicate. their faith. and their gender and age functions. To get down off. I will discourse their physical scene. clime and environment. They live in 200-250 small towns in the Amazon rain forest on the boundary line between Venezuela and Brazil. The small town where Chagnon lived is located at the junction of the Mavaca and Orincoco Rivers. Chagnon said. “Kaobawa’s small town lies at an lift of about 450 pess above sea degree on a by and large level. jungle-covered field that is interrupted on occasion by low hills” ( 46 ) .
Most of the rivers and watercourses start out in the hills as bantam drips that are dry at some times of the twelvemonth but turn into unsafe inundations at other times. Heavy rain can hold a dramatic consequence on larger watercourse and the Yanomamo avoid larger watercourses when they select garden and small town sites. Their clime has been described as warm and humid so they do non necessitate much vesture. The Yanomamo are really mobile because of the deforestation of the rain forest. The jungle is heavy and contains a big assortment of thenar and hardwood trees. Harmonizing to Chagnon. “the canopy keeps the sunshine from making the land. and on cloud-covered yearss it can be really dark and glooming in the jungle” ( 46 ) . It is really hard to go by pes in the wood and along the rivers and watercourses where sunshine can perforate to the land. flora grows and it is a oasis for birds and animate beings. Following. I will discourse the Yanomamo’s subsistence schemes. The Yanomamo depend on the rain forest. they grow bananas. gather fruit. and Hunt animate beings.
The Yanomamo move often to avoid countries that have become overused. Their engineering is easy to make from available stuffs. effectual plenty to work out the current job but are non destined to last everlastingly. Their engineering is really easy to make. No tool or technique is so complex that it requires particular cognition and each small town can bring forth every point in requires from available resources. They do merchandise their tools and resources. Their resources could be described as more characteristic of huntsmans and gatherers. but the Yanomamo are horticultural. They have this one weapon called the bow staff that is made from palm wood and it is five to six pess long. The bowstrings are made from the fibres of the interior bark of the thenar wood. Harmonizing to Chagnon. “the bark is twisted into thick cords by turn overing the fibres smartly between the thigh musculus and the thenar of the manus ; the cords are so strong that one can utilize them. in a pinch. as knoll ropes” ( 49 ) . The bow staff is shaped by shaving the stock with the incisors of a wild hog.
The completed bow staff is egg-shaped or unit of ammunition in cross subdivision and is really powerful. With usage. they become brickle and shatter when drawn excessively hard. The Yanomamo created many more arms and tools to garner and run. They besides rely on fish but merely during certain times of the twelvemonth. One method is to wait for the rainy season to stop because countries of the jungle have been flooded. go forthing fish stranded. They used the “slash-and-burn” gardening. which involves cutting and combustion of the forest to make Fieldss. It uses small engineering or other tools and it is portion of the switching cultivation agribusiness. The Yanomamo eat what the jungle can offer. They feast on all sorts of insects. larvae. fish. pediculosis pubis. wild honey. plantain. sweet murphy. and palm fruits. They really lack protein in their diet because they so much more fruit and veggies than meat green goods. Next. I will discourse the linguistic communication. communicating. symbols. and composing systems. Chagnon describes the Yanomamo’s vocabulary every bit much larger than the working vocabulary of most people in our ain civilization.
He besides said. “while it is besides true that the absolute content of our language’s vocabulary greatly exceeds the content of Yanomamo vocabulary. it is besides true that we know much less of ours than they do theirs” ( 101 ) . They have different fluctuations and idioms of the linguistic communication from different small towns can non understand each other. Occasionally. a battle will interrupt out between a hubby and married woman. and shortly the remainder of the small town showing sentiments on the difference. Once in a piece. a adult male gives a long. loud address voicing his sentiment of the universe in general. This is called what Chagnon refers to as patamou or kawa amou by the Yanomamo to “act big” ( 135 ) . Following. I will depict the faith. thaumaturgy. mythology. and worldview. The Yanomamo pattern the faith of animism. which means they believe the workss and animate beings around them have carnal liquors. These are called xapiripe. In order to see them. they must utilize a psychedelic drug called yopo. Yopo is taken by blowing through a tubing into the olfactory organ from one individual to another. When person takes yopo. they purportedly have a power to pull strings the liquors in the animate being and workss to travel into their ain organic structure. giving them more religious power.
The Yanomamo have a really complex spiritual belief system. Harmonizing to their belief. there are four degrees of world. The Yanomamo believe things tend to fall downward to a lower bed. The duku Ka misi. or top bed. is thought to be earliest and sensitive. They believe that many things originated in this bed. It is merely considered as holding a obscure map in mundane life. The following bed down. called the hedu Ka misi. and it is known as the sky bed. It has trees. gardens. small towns. animate beings. workss. and most significantly. the psyche of the asleep. Everything that exists on Earth is said to hold a opposite number on the 3rd bed. The bottom surface of the bed is said to be what the Yanomamo on Earth really see: the seeable sky. Stars and planets are attached to the bottom surface and travel across it on their single trails. There are many myths about how the first existences were created. The Yanomamo seem to believe that the universe began with these people present. Chagnon said that he had a difficult clip seeking to acquire the Yanomamo to explicate how the first existences were created. Last. I will discourse the gender and age functions. Many Yanomamo believe that work forces are more valuable than adult females.
The female kids are already taught to presume the responsibilities and duties in the family. long before their brothers are obliged to take part in other undertakings. The small misss are supposed to be given to their younger brothers and sisters and they’re expected to assist their female parents in other jobs. By the clip that the misss have reached pubescence. they have already learned that their universe is “less attractive” than that of their brothers ( 124 ) . They have already been promised in matrimony by that clip. Girls. have no voice in the determinations reached by their senior families in make up one’s minding whom they marry ( 124 ) . In many instances. misss have been promised to a adult male long before she reaches pubescence. and in some instances her husband-elect raises her for portion of her childhood. She normally does non get down populating with her hubby until after her first catamenial period. The adult females are fundamentally the equivalent to homemakers that we have here in America. Her responsibilities are peculiarly arduous. like roll uping firewood and taking H2O everyday. Roll uping firewood is hard and adult females spend hours every twenty-four hours seeking the vicinity for the perfect firewood.
If a adult female locates a good supply of wood near the small town so she will transport every bit much as she can and hive away it instead than hold it taken by her covillagers. With the child-adult division. the male childs are encouraged to be ferocious and they are seldom punished by their parents for hitting other male childs or on misss in the small town. Chagnon describes the life of Ariwari whom emulates his male parent by copying his activities on a child’s graduated table ( 129 ) . His sisters. are forced into more practical labour and assist their female parent do utile undertakings. A girl’s childhood ends sooner than a boy’s. By the clip a miss is ten old ages old. she has become an economic plus to the female parent and spends a great trade of clip working. Boys. spend hours playing amongst themselves and are able to populate out their childhood into their late teens. The miss has already been married and perchance had a kid or two. by that clip. In decision. Napoleon Chagnon has accurately portrayed the Yanomamo . By populating with the Yanomamo for so long. Chagnon has learned everything that he can about them. I have learned a great trade from him about the Yanomamo .
My reaction to this book is that it is a great book. I am glad that I know more about the Yanomamo and that I have learned so much. I think that Chagnon’s publishing houses should hold published the book in a bigger signifier. like the fount was excessively little to read sometimes. Chagnon besides confused me a small spot with the words that he used. I was shocked to larn about the male and female gender functions because they are so different from what we do here. Girls should be able to populate their kid goon and be happy. Boys should besides take on their father’s responsibilities earlier in their life like the misss do with their mother’s. There is so much content in this book that it is about excessively much. I believe that some thing could hold been left out in order to do this book easier to read. This book contained a batch of information about the gender and kid grownup division. There was besides a batch of information about the universe.
I would hold liked farther account of what they about. I learned many things about the Yanomamo . They live in the virago rain forest on the boundary line of Venezuela and Brazil. They live in a warm and humid clime that makes it hard to garden so they are really mobile. I do non hold with their beliefs of how the first existences came approximately. though. They believe that they began with the people present. Then. I do non hold with their gender functions. Work force and adult females should hold equal chances. Small misss should be allowed to populate their childhood longer than they do now and they should merely populate with their hubbies after they reach pubescence. Small male childs should larn their father’s responsibilities around the same age that the girl’s learn their responsibilities. They should both bask their childhoods. Their gender functions are a small spot messed up excessively. It seems like adult females do most of the arduous work around the house and the work forces seem to make less. That is merely my sentiment. I’ve gained many penetrations from this book.
Chagnon. Napoleon. Yanomamo . 6th erectile dysfunction. Belmont. Calcium: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. 2009. Print.