APES Chapter Questions Living in the Environment, Miller, 15th Ediction Chapter 1: Environmental Problems, Their Causes & Sustainability 1. What is an environmentally sustainable society? Give 2 examples. 2. What is the rate of global population growth? 3. How do you calculate doubling time? 4. What is the difference between economic growth, economic development and environmentally sustainable development? 5. Define natural capital and natural capital degradation. Give examples of each. 6. Define sustainable and sustainability. Give examples of the application of these two terms. 7. Name the three major cultural changes in human society. . Describe the four scientific principles of sustainability. Chapter 2: Science, Systems, Matter and Energy 1. Describe each of the steps to the scientific method. 2. Define system and surroundings. What are the components of a complex system? 3. Describe the 6 forms of energy and the uses of energy. 4. How does energy flow in a system? 5. How is matter classified? 6. What are the three Laws of Thermodynamics and how can they be applied to energy and environmental science? 7. What is a positive and negative feedback loop? Give examples of each. Chapter 3: Ecosystems: What are they and how do they work? 1.
Draw a map of each of the bio-geochemical cycles. Be sure to include any chemical reactions that occur. (Carbon, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Nitrogen, Rock, Hydrologic) 2. Describe the location and function of each of the soil horizon layers. What are the fundamental differences in each layer? Where would you find the “E” layer? 3. Name the three different sizes of soil particles and the function or use of each. 4. What is the processes of soil formation? 5. What are the major components of an ecosystem? 6. Outline the flow of energy through an ecosystem. 7. What is biomagnification and the significance of the process.
Chapter 4: Evolution and Biodiversity 1. Define biodiversity and describe it’s importance to sustainable living. 2. Compare and contrast adaptation, mutation, natural selection and evolution. 3. How does the extinction of species and formation of new species affect biodiversity? 4. How do species respond to an environmental stress? 5. How has genetic engineering affected the human population? The environment? Give three examples of each. 6. What laws and global agreements impact biodiversity? Chapter 5: Climate and Terrestrial Biodiversity 1. Describe each of the world’s major biomes and the characteristics of each.
Make sure you differentiate between polar, temperate and tropical. 2. What is the major factor behind climate? Describe the process. 3. How does climate affect the different biomes? 4. How have human activities affected the biomes? Climate? 5. Which climate is most susceptible to human interference and why? 6. Copy the chart on page #107 into your notes. Chapter 6: Aquatic Biodiversity 1. Describe the different zones of a freshwater system including flora, fauna and light penetration. 2. Describe the different zones of a saltwater system including flora, fauna and light penetration. 3.
How does salinity affect a freshwater system? Saltwater? 4. Describe the different coastal communities. What impact has man made on each community? 5. What are the major laws affecting freshwater and saltwater systems? Chapter 7: Community Ecology 1. Define the following terms and draw an energy map relating them to each other: keystone species, specialist species, indicator species, invasive species, native species 2. Describe the role of each of the species in question #1. 3. What does the term HIPPO refer to? Give examples. 4. What determines the number of species in a community? 5.
Describe the diversity of a community in terms of the species richness and diversity index. 6. Describe forest succession. 7. How have humans impacted the local community? Globally? Chapter 8: Population Ecology 1. Describe r and K selected species. Give an example of each. 2. What does a survivorship curve represent? What are Type I, II and II species. Give an example of each. 3. Compare and contrast “J” and “S” curves. Give an example from nature of each of these. 4. What is carrying capacity and what are the factors that determine it? Chapter 9: Applying Population Ecology: The Human Populations and It’s Impact 1.
Describe an age structure diagram and draw an example for a stable population, decreasing population and an increasing population. 2. Choose a country not represented in your textbook and draw the age structure diagram. What can you interpret about your country from the diagram? 3. How is population growth calculated? Describe. 4. What are the characteristics of a stable vs. unstable population; developing vs. developed country; and, negative vs. positive growth? 5. Compare and contrast TFR and RLF. 6. Describe the population trends in China and India. What is the government response in each of these countries to a growing population? . How can we slow or stop population growth? 8. What are the impacts to the environment of positive growth? 9. What is the International Conference on Population and Development? 10. What was the U. S. response to the latest meeting of the ICPD? Chapter 10: Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity 1. How has man affected the biodiversity of the Earth? Give three examples. 2. What major environmental legislation protects forests? Nature preserves? Rangelands? Describe each of these laws. 3. Compare and contrast restoration, rehabilitation, remediation and mitigation. Give an example of each. 4.
Describe the use of and the impact of tree farms. What is their impact on biodiversity? 5. Describe the differences in an old growth and a new growth forest. 6. What are the different methods for harvesting trees? 7. What is the Healthy Forest Initiative? 8. What are the benefits and hazards of forest fires. Chapter 11: Sustaining Biodiversity 1. Describe the three types of extinction and give an example of each. 2. Describe the impact of a loss of habitat to a species. 3. What is an invasive species? Give an example of one with the benefits and consequences. 4. What is the Endangered Species Act?
Choose a specific species and explain the impact of this act. 5. What global agreements protect endangered species? 6. Compare and contrast endangered and threatened. Chapter 12: Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity 1. How is aquatic biodiversity affected by human interference? 2. Describe the different methods of fishing. 3. What is the economic and environmental impact of fishing? 4. Which form of fishing is most environmentally sustainable? 5. Describe aquaculture. What are the pros and cons of fish farms? 6. What are the major sources of water pollution? 7. Describe commercial whaling practices.
What laws or agreements regulate whaling? 8. What laws regulate fresh and saltwater systems? 9. What is a wetland? Describe the formation of and purpose of a wetland. 10. What are the problems that wetlands face? Chapter 13: Food, Soil Conservation and Pest Management 1. Compare and contrast malnutrition, malnourished and overnutrition. 2. What is food security and how does it affect economy and policy? 3. What are the environmental impacts of meeting growing agricultural demand? 4. What makes up the greatest percentage of food security? 5. What are the pros and cons of genetically modified crops?
Give an example. 6. Describe the different methods for planting crops and the benefits of each. 7. What was the Green Revolution (I and II)? 8. What are the causes of erosion? What can be done to prevent it? 9. Describe what Integrated Pest Management is. 10. What policies and law affect food, soil conservation and pest control? Chapter 14: Water 1. What are the major uses for freshwater? 2. Where can water be found? Use percentages. 3. What is an aquifer? Describe the formation of and the recharging of an aquifer. 4. Describe the hydrologic cycle. How are humans affecting the water cycle? 5.
How does water diversion affect the groundwater table? 6. Describe the construction of and operation of a dam. 7. What are the pros and cons of water diversion? Name several major dams around the world and the problems associated with them. 8. What laws affect water systems. Chapter 15: Geology and Nonrenewable Mineral Resources 1. Describe the rock cycle. 2. Define ore, depletion time, spoils, and the different types of resources. 3. What is the human impact to the rock cycle? 4. Describe the major methods for mining and the environmental impact of each. 5. What legislation affects mining and mineral resources?
Chapter 16: Nonrenewable Energy 1. Where are all the non-renewable resources and how long is each one expected to last? 2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using natural gas? Where is natural gas formed? 3. How does the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics apply to energy efficiency? 4. What is “clean coal” and how is it cleaned? 5. Describe the process of mining for coal and the environmental impact. 6. What are the by-products of combusting fossil fuels including coal? 7. Draw a diagram of the process of electricity generation at a coal fired plant. 8. What are the by-products of nuclear power generation? . What isotope of Uranium is used by a nuclear power plant? Describe the process fission. 10. What are the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power? Chapter 17: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 1. How do you calculate energy efficiency? 2. How efficient are incandescent light bulbs, coal, natural gas and nuclear power? 3. Compare and contrast the effectiveness of alternative energy sources. 4. Describe the functional process of the following alternative energy sources including the advantages and disadvantages of each: Hydropower, geothermal, wind, solar, biomass, hydrogen. . How can we live more sustainably from an energy perspective? Chapter 18: Environmental Hazards and Human Health 1. On a global scale, how many people have died from AIDS since 1980? 2. What is the primary function of the WHO? 3. What are four (4) hazards that affect humans? 4. How can risks be assessed. 5. What are some of the high risk health problems? Medium? Low? 6. What is the greatest annual cause of death and how many lives does it claim? 7. What are the bodies three (3) major mechanisms for reducing toxins? 8. How many years have you lost based on the chart on page 436?
Chapter 19: Air Pollution 1. Describe the composition and structure of the atmosphere. 2. What are the major characteristics of each layer of the atmosphere? 3. Describe photochemical and industrial smog. Write out the chemical reactions for each. 4. What is the difference in primary and secondary pollutants? Give three examples of each. 5. List and describe the 7 major air pollutants and their sources. 6. What is “Sick Building Syndrome”? 7. What are the four biggest indoor air pollutants? Describe the source and remediation for each. 8. How many people die each day from indoor air pollution? 9.
What is the major indoor air pollutant problem in a developing country? 10. What is acid deposition? Where does it come from and how does it migrate? Write out the chemical reactions. 11. What is the pH of average rainfall in each of the regions of the United States? 12. Describe temperature inversion. Name a city where this phenomenon exists. 13. How can you reduce air pollution? List 5 solutions. 14. What environmental legislation affects air quality? Chapter 20: Climate Change and Ozone Depletion 1. Compare and contrast climate change and global warming. 2. What are the greenhouse gases, their sources and relative abundances? . Why are some greenhouse gases have a greater effect than others? 4. How do humans impact these greenhouse gases? 5. What does anthropogenic mean and what greenhouse gas is exclusively anthropogenic? 6. What are the effects of global warming? 7. What is the difference in ground level ozone and stratospheric ozone? 8. Describe 5 signs that humans have affected climate change. 9. Write out the equations for ozonation and ozone depletion. 10. What are the positive and negative feedback loops of climate change? 11. How has climate change affected the ocean? 12. Describe El Nino and La Nina and the impact on the environment.
Chapter 21: Water Pollution 1. What are the major water pollutants? 2. What are non-point and point source pollutants? 3. How do you assess water quality? 4. Describe the steps to waste water treatment. 5. What is the difference in primary and secondary treatment. 6. What laws affect water pollution? 7. What are the major pollutants in the ocean? 8. Compare and contrast water pollution in developed vs. developing countries. Chapter 22: Solid and Hazardous Waste 1. Define waste, solid waste. 2. What makes a waste hazardous? 3. What is the significance of Love Canal? 4. What do Americans throw away?
Include the abundance of each. 5. What is electronic waste and why is it a problem? 6. Describe how affluenza affects waste. 7. What do we do with our waste? Describe each process. 8. What are the principles of waste management? 9. Describe the construction of and operation of a sanitary landfill. 10. List the 5 “R’s” and explain each. Give examples. 11. How can we reduce waste? 12. Why is Lead and Mercury waste toxic? Describe the source of and the toxicological response to each. 13. How is waste incinerated? 14. What legislation affects waste? Chapter 23: Sustainable Cities 1. What is the Urban Heat Island Effect?
What is the environmental impact? 2. What is a megacity and how many are there globally? Megalopolis? 3. Describe urban sprawl. What 6 factors impact urban sprawl. 4. Discuss three disadvantages of urban sprawl. Chapter 24: Economics, Environment and Sustainability 1. Draw a Venn diagram connecting economics, the environment and sustainability. 2. What are the characteristics of an economically sustainable society? Are there any in existence? 3. Describe 4 ways that economic sustainability can be achieved. 4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of taxes? 5. Compare and contrast GDP and GPI.
Chapter 25: Politics, Environment and Sustainability 1. What are the steps to environmental policy making? 2. How effective are environmental policies in the US? How can this effectiveness be compared to the government? 3. Give an example of a successful government policy. 4. Give an example of global partnership in environmental policy. Chapter 26: Environmental Worldviews, Ethics and Sustainability 1. Describe the 3 different environmental worldviews. Give an example of each. 2. What is the most critical variable in living more sustainability? 3. What are the five areas we need to concentrate on to live more sustainably?