Apply Newtons First Law Of Motion Biology Essay

Isaac newtons first jurisprudence of gesture provinces that ‘If no net force Acts of the Apostless on a organic structure it will travel in a consecutive line at changeless speed, or will remain at remainder if ab initio at remainder ‘ ( Mansfeild & A ; O’Sullivan, 2012 ) . When using Newton ‘s first jurisprudence of gesture to a injury patient when a vehicle strikes a pole, it can help in finding the mechanism of hurt that occurs ( Rahm & A ; Pollak, 2004 ) . Three impacts occur. Initially when the auto hits the pole, the pole exerts the force that brings the vehicle to rest. The 2nd impact is the resident continues traveling frontward at the same velocity the auto was traveling until clashing with the construction of the auto that brings the organic structure to rest. The 3rd impact is the internal variety meats that continue traveling frontward and compacting within the organic structure ( Sanders, 2007 ) .

In a frontal impact, the resident continues traveling at the same velocity of the auto until the anterior surface of the organic structure hits the maneuvering wheel. The posterior organic structure continues traveling frontward and the variety meats compress. The resident ( s ) usually follow one of two way ways, the up-and-over or the down-and-under. In up and over with a frontal thorax impact to the maneuvering wheel and possible caput impact on the windscreen, possible hurts can include myocardial bruises, pneumothorax, flail thorax, pneumonic bruises, overpressure hurt in the venters, lacerated liver and/or lien, cervical spinal column hurt and encephalon hurt. Down and under possible hurts includes breaks of the lower appendages, facial hurts and cervical spinal column hurts ( Sanders, 2007 ) .

Lateral impacts with poles involve the part of the organic structure which is closest to the impact being injured straight, while those of the opposite side may be injured if they come into contact with the other side of the vehicle. Suspected hurts can be to the collarbone, chest wall and pectoral pit and abdominal pit and pelvic girdle, rotational spinal hurts ( Rahm & A ; Pollak, 2004 ) .

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Use the preservation of energy jurisprudence to a injury patient when a vehicle hits a wall.

The jurisprudence of preservation of energy provinces that ‘energy may neither be created or destroyed, merely transferred from one object to another ( Mansfeild & A ; O’Sullivan, 2012 ) . Injuries are caused by a transportation of energy from some external beginning to the human organic structure. The extent of the hurt is determined by the type of energy transferred, how quickly it occurs, and the portion of the organic structure to which the energy is applied to ( Sanders, 2007 ) .

When vehicle that strikes a solid object, for illustration a wall, the mechanical energy of gesture is potentially converted into thermic energy if the interruptions are applied ( Curtis & A ; Ramsden, 2011 ) . Upon impact with the wall, the kinetic energy dissipates into mechanical energy by flexing solid parts of the vehicle such as the frame as the auto crumples. Any staying kinetic energy dissipates into the residents and their skeletal mass and internal variety meats ( Curtis & A ; Ramsden, 2011 ) .

Vehicles are designed with safety in head. Airbags absorb energy if the resident is restrained right and seat belts maintain the resident in topographic point forestalling a maneuvering wheel distortion against the trunk. Interior constructions such as axial rotation bars, crumple zones and bumper absorb energy and understate the disconnected transmittal of energy to the residents in the vehicle ( American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2010 ) .

WORD COUNT: 532

Bibliography

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. ( 2010 ) . Nancy Caroline ‘s Emergency Care in the Streets. USA: Jones & A ; Bartlett Learning.

Curtis, K. , & A ; Ramsden, C. ( 2011 ) . Emergency and Trauma Care for Nurses and Paramedics. Sydney: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Mansfeild, M. , & A ; O’Sullivan, C. ( 2012 ) . Understanding Physics. United States: John Wiley & A ; Sons.

Rahm, S. , & A ; Pollak, A. ( 2004 ) . Trauma Case Studies for the Paramedic. USA: Jones & A ; Bartlett Learning.

Drum sanders, M. ( 2007 ) . Mosby ‘s Paramedic Textbook. St Louis: Elsevier.

Portfolio Part One Marking Guide

Student Name Rebecca Boughton

Student Number:10233505

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Presentation:

Marking usher ; title page ; tabular array of contents ; page Numberss ; right borders ; rectify spacing ; right fount ; right headers ; paragraph format ( see ECU Assignment Guidelines )

Writing Skills:

Logical and clear ; good structured sentences ; rectify spelling ( Australian ) ; grammatically correct ; usage of the 3rd individual, inactive manner.

CRITICAL Thinking Question:

Identify the relevant theories which are reflected in each treatment

Explain the relevant theories which are reflected the subject.

Depth of understanding & A ; quality of content

Mentions:

Correct format for in-text mention and end-text mention list in conformity with APA. Minimum FIVE ( 5 ) mentions per inquiry ( journal articles, text editions, and believable web sites – .gov.org.ecu ) .

Mentions need to be less than nine old ages old

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Andy Symons

Lecture 2

Briefly explain why the physiological alterations in the Cushing ‘s Reflex occur in terrible caput injured patients.

Many physiological alterations, runing from compensatory to lifesaving, occur when injury occurs in any portion of the organic structure. Cushing ‘s physiological reaction or three is one of those alterations that occur in terrible caput hurts. It is caused by increased intracranial force per unit area, ensuing in increased systolic force per unit area, widened pulse force per unit area and lessening in the pulsation and respiratory rate foremost described by an American brain surgeon, Harvey Cushing in 1901 ( Cushing, 1901 ) .

The normal scope of intracranial force per unit area is between 0-15 millimeter Hg ( Sanders, 2007 ) .When the intracranial force per unit area rises above the normal scope, the ability to keep intellectual perfusion force per unit area is compromised and intellectual blood flow is diminished. Rises intracranial force per unit area can be caused by encephalon hydrops or spread outing hematoma, abscesses, generalized encephalon puffiness and obstructor in CSF flow and/or soaking up ( Rahm & A ; Pollak, 2004 ) .

Prehospitally, the degree of intracranial force per unit areas can non be calculated and prehospital attention must concentrate on keeping intellectual perfusion force per unit area and intellectual blood flow, while extenuating intracranial force per unit area. This involves closely supervising the symptoms as the symptoms that develop depend on the sum of force per unit area inside the skull, and the engagement of the brain-stem. Early symptoms of raised intracranial force per unit area include ; purging, concern, an altered degree on consciousness and ictuss ( American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2010 ) .

As intracranial force per unit area rises, the organic structure attempts to counterbalance for the diminution in intellectual perfusion force per unit area by lifting average arterial force per unit area, bradycardia and irregular respirations, the Cushing ‘s physiological reaction affecting a series of physiological alterations. As intracranial force per unit area additions, intellectual blood flow decreases taking to ischemia and an increased degree of CO2 and decreased O2 degrees in the blood. The hypoxia and hypercapnea stimulates the vasomotor Centre in the myelin oblongata which regulates blood force per unit area. The increased sympathetic signals from the vasomotor Centre causes ; arteriolar bottleneck which increases the systemic blood force per unit area, vasoconstriction which decreases blood stored in the venous reservoir and increases venous reservoir. It besides leads to an increased bosom rate and an addition in the force of contraction ( Khurana, 2008 ) . This consequences in the increased blood force per unit area and widened pulse force per unit area in the Cushing ‘s physiological reaction.

The increased blood force per unit area besides causes automatic bradycardia via a baroreceptor response. Baroreceptors are located in the walls of the bosom and big blood vass such as the aortal arch and the carotid fistula. They are stimulated by distention of the constructions in which they are located and they signal at an increased rate when the force per unit area in their construction rises. They signal an suppression of tonic discharge of vasoconstrictive nervousnesss and excitement of pneumogastric excitation of the bosom ensuing in bradycardia ( Khurana, 2008 ) .

The control Centre for nonvoluntary external respiration is located in the myelin and Ponss of the encephalon root. As the intracranial force per unit area additions, the encephalon root can go distort and its actions as the respiratory control Centre are compromised ( Khurana, 2008 ) . This consequences in the irregular form of external respiration, the concluding stage in Cushing ‘s Triad. If the rise in intracranial force per unit area remains unsolved, the encephalon ruptures and herniated ( Sanders, 2007 ) .

Protective physiological mechanism exists to protect the homeostasis of the organic structure after a injury has occurred. Cushing ‘s three, composition of ; high blood pressure, bradycardia and irregular respirations, is a last effort by the organic structure ‘s sympathetic nervous system to counterbalance for the rise in intracranial force per unit area.

WORD COUNT: 539

Bibliography

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. ( 2010 ) . Nancy Caroline ‘s Emergency Care in the Streets. USA: Jones & A ; Bartlett Learning.

Cushing, H. ( 1901 ) . Refering a definite regulative mechanism of the vasomotor Centre which controls blood force per unit area during intellectual compaction. Johns Hopkins Hosp Bull, 12:290-292.

Khurana. ( 2008 ) . Necessities Of Medical Physiology. Dehli: Elsevier India.

Rahm, S. , & A ; Pollak, A. ( 2004 ) . Trauma Case Studies for the Paramedic. USA: Jones & A ; Bartlett Learning.

Drum sanders, M. ( 2007 ) . Mosby ‘s Paramedic Textbook. St Louis: Elsevier.

Sherwood, L. ( 2007 ) . Human Physiology: Fromcells to System 6th Ed. USA: Thomson.

Portfolio Part One Marking Guide

Student Name Rebecca Boughton

Student Number:10233505

CRITERIA FOR ASSIGNMENT

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Poor

1

Average

2

Good

3

Presentation:

Marking usher ; title page ; tabular array of contents ; page Numberss ; right borders ; rectify spacing ; right fount ; right headers ; paragraph format ( see ECU Assignment Guidelines )

Writing Skills:

Logical and clear ; good structured sentences ; rectify spelling ( Australian ) ; grammatically correct ; usage of the 3rd individual, inactive manner.

CRITICAL Thinking Question:

Identify the relevant theories which are reflected in each treatment

Explain the relevant theories which are reflected the subject.

Depth of understanding & A ; quality of content

Mentions:

Correct format for in-text mention and end-text mention list in conformity with APA. Minimum FIVE ( 5 ) mentions per inquiry ( journal articles, text editions, and believable web sites – .gov.org.ecu ) .

Mentions need to be less than nine old ages old

WORD COUNT: Is the word count within +/- 10 % of bound? ( 500 words per Clinical Thinking Question

NO ( 0 Markss )

YES ( 1 grade )

Entire Marks: /25

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Andy Symons

Lecture 3 Spinal Trauma

Briefly define the undermentioned syndromes associated with spinal cord hurt:

Anterior Cord Syndrome

Anterior cord syndrome occurs when cadaverous vertebral fragments or force per unit area compresses the vascular system that supplies the anterior spinal cord. It frequently consequences from hyper flexure hurts or breaks ( Rahm & A ; Pollak, 2004 ) . The anterior spinal arteria provides blood to the anterior two tierces of the spinal cord ( American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2010 ) . The break of blood supply amendss both the motor and centripetal tracts in the anterior portion of the spinal column, which allow patients to experience rough esthesis ( Elliott, Aitken, & A ; Chaboyer, 2006 ) . The posterior cord maps such as centripetal response to light touch and proprioception are non affected ( Rahm & A ; Pollak, 2004 ) .

Cardinal Cervical Cord Syndrome

Cardinal cervical cord syndrome occurs as a consequence of flexure or hyperextension hurts in patients with increased susceptibleness to injury secondary to the development or degenerative narrowing of the spinal canal. It is frequently a consequence of bruise within the spinal cord ( Rahm & A ; Pollak, 2004 ) . The hurt arises in the Centre of the cervical cord and due to the distribution of the motor fibres, more cervical and pectoral motor and sensory piece of lands than in the fringe of the cord, if green goodss characteristic symptoms ( American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2010 ) . These include ; failing, palsy and sensory defects greater in the upper appendages than the lower appendages ( Sanders, 2007 ) .

Brown-Sequard syndrome

Brown-Sequard syndrome is a hemitransection of the spinal cord ( Sanders, 2007 ) . It is a less common type of uncomplete spinal hurt in which one half of the cord is affected ( Rahm & A ; Pollak, 2004 ) . It may ensue from a ruptured inter vertebral disc or the forcing of a fragment of vertebral organic structure on the spinal cord. It can besides ensue from external factors such as knife or missile hurts ( Sherwood, 2007 ) . Movement is lost below the degree of hurt on the injured side, but hurting and temperature esthesis is lost on the contralateral side ( Elliott, Aitken, & A ; Chaboyer, 2006 ) .

Horner ‘s syndrome

Horner ‘s syndrome was first described in animate beings by J. F. Horner and is characterized by constricted student, ptosis and absence of perspiration secretory organ activity on the affected side of the face ( Elliott, Aitken, & A ; Chaboyer, 2006 ) . Horner ‘s syndrome can ensue from a host anyhow along a three-neuron sympathetic tract. Break of the sympathetic tracts between the hypothalamus and spinal cord cause the first order of Horner ‘s. The 2nd order nerve cell lies at the ciliospinal centre at C8-T2. The 3rd order nerve cell lies in the superior ganglion, a lesion at or distal to this nerve cell consequences in 3rd order Horner ‘s syndrome. When this occurs, the concluding nerve cell in the tract dies and its peripheral procedures wasting and dice ( Campbell, 2005 ) .The causes of Horner ‘s syndrome are host and include ; brainstem hosts, bunch concern, internal carotid arteria thrombosis or dissection, cavernous fistula disease, aptical lung tumors, and cervix injury ( Campbell, 2005 ) .

WORD COUNT:462

Bibliography

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. ( 2010 ) . Nancy Caroline ‘s Emergency Care in the Streets. USA: Jones & A ; Bartlett Learning.

Campbell, W. ( 2005 ) . DeJong ‘s The Neurologic Examination. USA: Lippincott Williams & A ; Wilkins.

Elliott, D. , Aitken, L. , & A ; Chaboyer, W. ( 2006 ) . ACCCN ‘s Critical Care Nursing. Sydney: Elsevier Australia.

Rahm, S. , & A ; Pollak, A. ( 2004 ) . Trauma Case Studies for the Paramedic. USA: Jones & A ; Bartlett Learning.

Drum sanders, M. ( 2007 ) . Mosby ‘s Paramedic Textbook. St Louis: Elsevier.

Sherwood, L. ( 2007 ) . Human Physiology: Fromcells to System 6th Ed. USA: Thomson.

Portfolio Part One Marking Guide

Student Name Rebecca Boughton

Student Number:10233505

CRITERIA FOR ASSIGNMENT

Very Poor

0

Poor

1

Average

2

Good

3

Presentation:

Marking usher ; title page ; tabular array of contents ; page Numberss ; right borders ; rectify spacing ; right fount ; right headers ; paragraph format ( see ECU Assignment Guidelines )

Writing Skills:

Logical and clear ; good structured sentences ; rectify spelling ( Australian ) ; grammatically correct ; usage of the 3rd individual, inactive manner.

CRITICAL Thinking Question:

Identify the relevant theories which are reflected in each treatment

Explain the relevant theories which are reflected the subject.

Depth of understanding & A ; quality of content

Mentions:

Correct format for in-text mention and end-text mention list in conformity with APA. Minimum FIVE ( 5 ) mentions per inquiry ( journal articles, text editions, and believable web sites – .gov.org.ecu ) .

Mentions need to be less than nine old ages old

WORD COUNT: Is the word count within +/- 10 % of bound? ( 500 words per Clinical Thinking Question

NO ( 0 Markss )

YES ( 1 grade )

Entire Marks: /25

Scaled Marks: — %

Date and coach ‘s signature

Andy Symons

Lecture Four Thoracic Trauma

Haemothorax is associated with a higher mortality rate than a simple pneumothorax. Why is that the instance?

Both hemothorax and pneumothorax are considered intermediate life endangering conditions in the pre-hospital environment as they both straight cause take a breathing complications ( Curtis & A ; Ramsden, 2011 ) . However, hemothorax is associated with a higher mortality rate as it besides causes circulative complications.

Pneumothorax refers to air or gas in the pleural pit. There are many different sorts of pneumothorax, runing from closed, tenseness, and unfastened pneumothorax. Pneumothorax occurs when the chest wall is punctured and air flows down its force per unit area gradient from the higher atmospheric force per unit area and hastes into the plural infinite. The intra-pleural and intra-alveolar force per unit area are equilibriated with atmospheric force per unit area, and the transmural force per unit area gradient is lost across either the lung wall or the chest wall, which can ensue in a collapsed lung ( Sherwood, 2007 ) . Its causes can run from traumatic, happening after rib breaks that puncture the lung or self-generated or malignant, caused by an implicit in diesease ( Kumar, Abbas, Fausto, & A ; Aster, 2010 ) . All pneomothorax are treated with high concentrations of O and airway direction. Open pneumothorax must hold the thorax lesion closed ( 3 sides of the dressing taped ) , to help discharge and allows self-generated decompression of a potentially developing tenseness pneumothorax. Tension pneumothorax may necessitate a needle decompression ( Sanders, 2007 ) .

Haemothorax has a higher mortality rate than pneumothorax as it affects more than one system. An flight of blood into the pleural pit is defined as a hemothorax. It is diagnosed when the haematocrit of the pleural fluid is greater than 50 % of the peripheral haematocrit. The bulk of hemothorax are due to trauma, but they can besides be caused spontaneously due to other malignances or underlying diseases ( George, Light, Matthay, & A ; Matthay, 2005 ) . It can be a fatal complication of a ruptured aortal aneurism or vascular injury ( Kumar, Abbas, Fausto, & A ; Aster, 2010 ) . Each side of the thorax can keep 30-40 % of the patient ‘s blood volume, that can roll up to 2000-3000mL ( Sanders, 2007 ) . Blood can roll up in the thoracic pit and depending on the sum can displace the lung tissue taking to impaired oxygenation and hypoxemia. The physique up of blood in the lung besides means that it is lost from the circulatory system doing hypovolaemia and leads the patient into hypovolaemic daze ( George, Light, Matthay, & A ; Matthay, 2005 ) .When handling patients showing with a hemothorax both the respiratory and circulative complications must be treated. High concentration O with airing support would be administered to handle the respiratory jobs and disposal of volume-expanding fluids to handle the hypovolaemia. They would besides be transported quickly to infirmary ( Sanders, 2007 ) .

Reasoning in simple footings, the mortality rate of pneumothorax is lower than hemothorax as pneumothorax affects the ‘B ‘ of ABCDE, the respiratory system. On the other manus, hemothorax affects both ‘B ‘ and ‘C ‘ of ABCDE, compromising the respiratory system and the circulatory system, ensuing in a higher mortality.

WORD COUNT: 463

Bibliography

Curtis, K. , & A ; Ramsden, C. ( 2011 ) . Emergency and Trauma Care for Nurses and Paramedics. Sydney: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Elliott, D. , Aitken, L. , & A ; Chaboyer, W. ( 2006 ) . ACCCN ‘s Critical Care Nursing. Sydney: Elsevier Australia.

George, R. B. , Light, R. W. , Matthay, M. A. , & A ; Matthay, R. A. ( 2005 ) . Chest Medicine: Necessities of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine. USA: Lippincott Williams & A ; Wilkins.

Kumar, V. , Abbas, A. , Fausto, N. , & A ; Aster, J. C. ( 2010 ) . Robbins and Cotran Pathological Basis of Disease. China: Saunders Elsevier.

Drum sanders, M. ( 2007 ) . Mosby ‘s Paramedic Textbook. St Louis: Elsevier.

Sherwood, L. ( 2007 ) . Human Physiology: Fromcells to System 6th Ed. USA: Thomson.

Portfolio Part One Marking Guide

Student Name Rebecca Boughton

Student Number:10233505

CRITERIA FOR ASSIGNMENT

Very Poor

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Poor

1

Average

2

Good

3

Presentation:

Marking usher ; title page ; tabular array of contents ; page Numberss ; right borders ; rectify spacing ; right fount ; right headers ; paragraph format ( see ECU Assignment Guidelines )

Writing Skills:

Logical and clear ; good structured sentences ; rectify spelling ( Australian ) ; grammatically correct ; usage of the 3rd individual, inactive manner.

CRITICAL Thinking Question:

Identify the relevant theories which are reflected in each treatment

Explain the relevant theories which are reflected the subject.

Depth of understanding & A ; quality of content