Bhindi Summer Vegetable Crops In Pakistan Biology Essay


Okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus L. ) is locally known as Bhindi is one of the most of import summer vegetable harvests in Pakistan. Okra, the genus esculentus with synonyms Abelmoschus belongs to the household Malvaceae or mallow under the order of Malavles. This genus contains about 150 known species with esculentus as the coinage of okra ( Thompson and Kelly, 1957 ) . Okra is an allopolyploid of probationary parenthood. Truly wild, as divergent to naturalised, populations, are non decidedly known, and the species may be a cultigen. Its beginnings were in Ethiopia and it was cultivated by the ancient Egyptians in the twelfth century B.C. It so made its manner through North Africa and the Middle East ( George, 1985 ) . It is now grown in all parts of the Torrid Zones and during the summer in the heater parts of the temperate part ( Baloch, 1994 ) . It is one of the oldest cultivated harvests and soon grown in many states and is widely distributed from Africa to Asia, southern Europe and America ( Ariyo, 1993 ; Oyelade et al. , 2003 ) .

Its entire production is 4.8 million ton cods of Okra in the universe ; India contributes 70 % , Nigeria 15 % , Pakistan 2 % , Ghana 2 % , Egypt 1.7 % and Iraq 1.7 % ( Gulsen et al. , 2007 ) . In Pakistan the entire country under Okra cultivation is about 14.78 1000 hour angle and entire production is about 0.112 million tones with mean output of approximately 7.55 tones/ha of green cods ( Anonymous, 2008 ) .

Okra works is a semi woody, hempen herbaceous one-year with an undetermined growing wont. It is a perennial works that grows up to 2 metres tall with bosom shaped foliages and big, xanthous flowers. The foliages are 10-20 centimeter long and wide, palmately lobed with 5-7 lobes. The flowers are 4-8 centimeter diameter, with five white to yellow petals, frequently with a ruddy or violet topographic point at the base of each petal ( Purewal and Randhawa, 1947 ) . The seed cod which range in size from 3-10 inches in length and have a unique, gluey texture and sweet spirit. The workss form a deeply perforating taproot with heavy shallow feeder roots making out in all way in the upper 45cm of the dirt. The seeds are dicotyledonous and kidney shaped with epigeal sprouting ( Nonnecke, 1989 ) . Okra is chiefly a ego pollinated harvest nevertheless ; insects such as honey bees and humblebees do cross-pollination on occasion. The seed cods quickly become hempen and woody and must be harvested within a hebdomad of the fruit being pollinated to be comestible. The fruits are harvested when immature and eaten as a vegetable ( Pecknepaugh, 1991 ) .

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It is among the most heat- and drought-tolerant vegetable species in the universe. But terrible hoar can damage the cods and will digest hapless dirts with heavy clay and intermittent wet. Most cultivars are adapted to high temperature throughout the turning period with small seasonal fluctuation. Seed will merely reduplicate in comparatively warm dirts, no sprouting occurs below 16oC. A monthly norm temperature scope of 21oC to 30oC is considered appropriate for growing, blossoming and cod development ( Tindall, 1983 ; Nonnecke, 1989 ) .

Okra has high nutrient value and rich in some nutritionary elements ( Ca, Mg & A ; P ) besides contains some vitamins with medium per centums ( Riboflavin, Thiamin, Vitamin-C & A ; Vitamin-A ) ( Matloob et al. , 1989 ) . Which can assist in minimising their lack in the day-to-day diet. Okra is used for pokes and ropes ( Watt, 1908 ) , biogas and fuel ( Dahiya and Vasudevan, 1987 ) and besides root could function for paper-making ( Martin, 1982 ) . Young leaves of okra which are cooked by the Africans may besides move as a diuretic, and aborticide every bit good as holding stomachic ulcer and lesion healing belongingss ( Weniger and Robineau, 1988 ) . Flower buds are besides consumed as veggies ( FAO, 1988 ) . The fruit mucilage is of involvement as it could replace blood plasma ( Benjamin et al. , 1951 ) , cut down unstable clash in turbulent flow ( Castro and Neuwirth, 1971 ) , and stabilise froths ( Woolfe et al. , 1977 ) and suspensions ( Wahi et al. , 1985 ) .

It besides has medicative belongingss as an cream, laxative and expectorant ( Muresan and Popescu, 1993 ) . Okra is besides rich in phenolic compounds which cut down the hazard of cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and certain malignant neoplastic diseases ( Havsteen, 2002 ; Romani et al. , 2005 ) . Okra seeds are a beginning of oil, protein and can be used as a replacement for java ( Martin, 1982 ) . Okra seeds contain Protein content 20 per centum or more and oil content 14 per centum or more. Okra seed oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid ( Savello et al. 1980 ) , which is indispensable for human nutrition. While the seed pulverization has been used as a replacement for aluminum salts in H2O purification ( Vaidya andNanoti, 1989 ) .

Growth and give depend upon many factors including seed quality, nutrition, climatic conditions and cultural patterns. Plant growing regulators are chemical substances and when applied in less sums, they bring rapid alterations in the phenotypes of the works and besides act upon the growing, right from seed sprouting to senescence either by heightening or by exciting the natural growing regulative system ( Das and Das, 1995 ) . Growth regulators can better the physiological efficiency including photosynthetic ability and can heighten effectual breakdown of the accumulates from source-sink relationship and excite the translocation of photo-assimilates, thereby increasing the productiveness in field harvests ( Solaimalai et al. , 2001 ) . Though, the works growing regulators have great possible, it has to be sanely planned in footings of optimum concentration, phase of application, species specificity and seasons. These are considered as new coevals of agro-chemicals after fertilisers, pesticides and weedkillers. In their broad spectrum of effectivity on every facet of works growing, even a modest addition of 10-15 per cent could convey about an increase in the gross one-year productiveness by 10-15 m dozenss. Plant physiologists have recognized five good defined groups of works growing substances. These are auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, inhibitors ( ABA ) and aging endocrine ethene. The usage of works growing regulators had led to intensive scientific activity for their commercial development. Since, 1949 many good effects of different works growing regulators have been reported on different horticultural harvests and other field harvests. Among them, the usage of GA3, NAA and ethrel is of considerable involvement in different Fieldss of agribusiness and gardening ( Briant, 1974 ) .

. Growth regulators were foremost identified in the early 1930aa‚¬a„?s as important tools in increasing harvest production. The growing and blossoming of many flower harvests and bedding workss were successfully controlled by growing regulators to bring forth high quality horticultural merchandises. Gibberellins ( GAs ) play an indispensable function in many facets of works growing and development, such as seed sprouting ( Maske et al. , 1997 ) , stem elongation and flower development ( Yamaguchi and Kamiya, 2000 ) . And increased vegetive growing in workss sprayed with GA3 ( Wareing and Phillips, 1976 ) . Gibberellic acid is a simple gibberellin, advancing growing and elongation of cells. It affects decomposition of workss and helps workss turn if used in little sums. It stimulates the cells of shooting seeds to bring forth mRNA molecules that code for hydrolytic enzymes ( Bidwell, 1974 ) . Naphthalene acetic acid ( NAA ) is a works endocrine of the auxin household. It is one of the man-made auxin that enhances ethylene synthesis in treated flowers and immature fruits, which in bend induces abscission of those variety meats ( El-Otmani et al. , 2000 ) . And besides used as a practical growing regulator and is an ingredient in many commercial works rooting horticultural merchandises and suppression of flower bead, bud bole sloughing, button casting and suppress germination and development of chumps ( Williams and Taji, 1989 ) .

Consequence of works growing regulators applied in the earlier phases of works life have shown good effects on the vegetive growing every bit good as on the output of the works. The growing regulators influence works growing and development at really low concentrations while they inhibit at high concentrations ( Jules et al. , 1981 ) .

Foliar application of growing regulators and chemicals at blooming phase may better the physiological efficiency and may play a important function in raising the productiveness of the harvest ( Dashora and Jain, 1994 ) . Foliar application of works growing regulators increased works tallness, figure of foliages per works, fruit size and seed output in land nut and many other harvests ( Lee, 1990 ) .

Therefore the intent of present survey will non merely to heighten the growing but besides to increase the productiveness of okra by utilizing different growing regulators and their combinations.