Cairo is the Egyptian capital, the largest metropolis in Africa. It is located in the Nile Delta, 14 kilometres south of the Nile River. The most country of the metropolis is in the E of the river and it is 120 kilometres east of the Suez Canal. The urban country is about 214 square kilometres. Great Cairo included Helwan, Maadi, Nasser, Aslamm, Ramadan City, October 6 and other satellite towns with a entire country of 1200 square kilometres. The population of those satellite towns is about fifth of the state ‘s entire.
It is standing for both fiscal Centre and transit hub. The metropolis is the state ‘s largest concern and fiscal centre. Manufacturing end product value is about half of the state. Fabric industry is the most of import sector. Natural cotton stuff is peculiarly well-developed but besides wool, silk, hemp fabric industry. And they are followed by the nutrient, sugar, coffin nails, cement and family contraptions. There are besides included traditional leather tanning, show-making, every bit good as gold, Ag decorations and other handcrafts. The satellite town, Helena which is 25 kilometres off from South of the metropolis, focal point on heavy industry in order to press and steel industry. It has developed coking, machinery, car, bike, oil and chemical sectors. Cairo gathered the national tierce of the trading companies and about a one-fourth of the banking, commercial and assorted service industries flourish. Tourism is an of import portion of the metropolis economic system, as straight or indirectly employed about 40 million.
It besides stands for an of import conveyance hub. The state ‘s major rail ways and roads run into at this intersection, connected Alexandria, Port Said, Ismailia, Suez, Aswan and other major metropoliss. The Nile to the West is the major manner connected through Upper and Lower Egypt. Canal Ismailia which has entree to Canal Suez is merely on the west side of Nile. Eastern suburb of Heliopolis has a modern international airdrome, the proviso of Article 30 domestic and international paths. There are 13 elevated railroads, main road flyovers, and three big prosaic Bridgess in the metropolis. The span in the 6th Oct is more than 10 kilometre.
From the foregoing, Cairo is a metropolis is the Egyptian centre of economic, transit and politic. The development clear influences the state. Today, many developing states are faced with job of urbanisation. As the first ‘open ‘ state in the Arabian universe, Cairo plays a important function in urbanisation which can non be ignored.
Existing urban planning schemes
The general maestro program which established in 70 ‘s in to make a ‘super agglomeration ‘ or poly-nuclear City to suit big population growing caused by rural-urban migration. In each single orbiter town, it expected to be ‘self sufficient ‘ which included residential, commercial and amusement development in order to cut down the demand for transposing. Ringing route, tube and other transit system should be built in order to function spread outing colonies. In agribusiness facet, it encourages development to distribute to the E and West of the metropolis Centre, into desert land, to avoid edifice on valuable nutrient-rich cultivable land in the Nile Delta. In Figure two, it shows the original proposal of enlargement gesture at West and east way.
Unfortunately, the maestro program has failed. The program does n’t hold important consequence on the urban development. It ‘s largely because of naive urbanisation which did n’t see some basic societal issues good. First, the maestro program covered big countries ; nevertheless, the infrastructural development fell behind. Second, the new satellite town failed to pull population. ( Table 1 ) The mark of population can non be carried out and there are non adequate employment chances in some of development countries.
Feedback from Interview
Peoples ‘s points of position are ever considered as the most powerful grounds. Before get downing deep research of the undertaking, an interview has been taken by M. Shaker in Cairo. Therefore, the public sentiments have been investigated and analyzed. The interview is concentrating on their abode history, the location they aspire to populate in and their sentiments about the downtown country. The population of business district is shriveling aggressively and the ground why people do n’t desire to populate in the downtown country is fundamentally showed in the pie chart. Quality of life and traffic status seem to be concerned largely. Besides, in the saloon chart, it clearly shows that working near to occupants is the most of import factor for occupation choice. To sum it up, people intended to travel out of the business district for better lodging and life environment. They besides want the new colony to supply occupation chances so that they can work near to their abode.
pAs the analysis of interview information, the chief jobs and contradictions come out in two facets: one is about the life quality and the lodging position with big figure of rural population, and another is about traffic jobs with the developments of satellite towns. pAs the analysis of interview information, the chief jobs and contradictions come out in two facets: one is about the life quality and the lodging position with big figure of rural population, and another is about traffic jobs with the developments of satellite towns.
The population of Cairo increased aggressively from 1970 to 5.9 million, up to 8.7 million to 1980. In 1996, it reaches 14.6 million which is a one-fourth of this state ‘s. However, Cairo ‘s population is still turning at a rate of 0.35 million per twelvemonth. The population is excessively big to tremendous force per unit area on Cairo. ( CAPMAS 1997 )
First, there are the nutrient deficits. Cairo consumed half of the entire imports of the state ; any metropolis in the universe can non be compared in this point. Import nutrient monetary values maintain lifting, although the authorities spends immense amounts of money for nutrient subsidies, the consequence is non delighting. Second, it caused the occupants of Cairo worsening criterion of life. From 1985 to 1989, the general consumer monetary value about increased dual, and it keeps increasing. Third, the big figure of people ran into the metropolis cause a serious deficit of rural labour force and unemployment to the citizens. In 1961, the national unemployment rate was 4.7 % , Cairo unemployment rate was 7.5 % . In 1970, the national unemployment rate was 2 % , Cairo was 7.6 % . Meanwhile, the immature population is another challenge in Cairo, Harmonizing to statistics, 1988 the population aged 0 to 14 accounted for 40 % . The big figure of immature people will set a immense force per unit area on Cairo societal and economic development in the hereafter.
What is the ground for population enlargement in Cairo? It has the heavy urban map. The denseness of its urban maps is highest in Africa. It loads half of the industry in the state and it has to chief international and domestic trade activities. In add-on, it has education institute such as Al-Azhar University, Cairo University and American University. As the Government ‘s route building, lodging, H2O, electricity and other public installations placed in Cairo, which determines the authorities ‘s bulk of investings are remaining in the country. Therefore, it provided significant employment chances in this country, on the other manus, little towns and rural countries substructure building will be deficiency of financess. It so that expand the spread between urban and rural countries. The contrast cause rural young person do non desire to travel place after graduation.
In the other manus, fundamentally, there are three types of lodging in Cairo:
A. Legitimate lodging. It was divided into three types: 1. States to lease and sell or supply lodging for the national staff. 2. Concerted lodging ( Cooperative ) . 3. Private lodging.
B. Illegal building. Since 1960, one-year lodging building accounted for 70 % of urban lodging about 60000 units of lodging yearly, is chiefly for citizens with low income.
C. Slums. They are chiefly used by people with last income and new immigrants.
The legitimate lodging is acquiring old and loses their attractive force to citizens, but the slums are maintaining turning and cover most of the urban topographic points. The Government can non halt the hapless to construct that as the really low incomes they have. The “ Roof room ” consequence shows a lodging deficit in Cairo. Today, in the metropolis, the many edifices left room on the top and those topographic points are nice topographic point for the hapless. Therefore, the slum and informal colonies became strong feeling of some development site. ‘These heavy concentrations of homo and economic activity are frequently located near mills, refuse mopess, or other noxious activities where eviction force per unit areas are comparatively low. While slum occupants typically plan, finance, and construct their ain communities, they do non hold the fiscal resources to besides build basic substructure like waste disposal and drainage installations. With small aid forthcoming from outside the slums, these installations are frequently unequal, ensuing in degraded and unhealthy life and hapless environmental conditions. Informal lodging and slum countries are, in most instances, the beginning of environment pollution, both above and belowground, slum and informal communities in the GCMR are typically found in the developed parts of the GCA. ‘ ( M. EI Araby 2002 )
The pollution of Cairo is another large issue and makes people acquire off from it. Today, the motor vehicle emanation is major beginning of the air pollution. Another beginning is industrial emanation. Because some of the high denseness of heavy industry located near the metropolis, the air pollution is truly unsafe to public wellness particularly kids. All the people are seeking to get away from those industrial parts.
All of those show that the environment of life in downtown country is truly bad and even acquiring worse ; hence, new colonies were built for people particularly for those can afford a new house and want to hold a better living criterion. Some of those colonies included working, instruction and other life substructure ; it became more and more ‘self sufficient ‘ and portion from the metropolis chief portion. In the hereafter, as satellite towns increasing, the population will be drag out of the metropolis and disperse to the desert.
Traffic and conveyance state of affairs is a step of urban maps, while the metropolis has promoted the development of modern transit. In 19th Century, as several ropewaies developed, assorted modern conveyances are turning up in Cairo. With the development of the metropolis, vehicle grows quickly. Until early 1995, an official statistics shows a sum of 3.6 million assorted types of motor vehicles. All the car motor companies take notice of the immense markets in this state, fluctuation types of autos and new autos exhibitions emerge one after another.
However, auto congestion has been a menace to walkers on the pavement. The disorderliness gave a bad feeling of this metropolis. ‘When people say that a metropolis, or a portion of it, is unsafe or is a jungle what they mean chiefly is that they do non experience safe on the pavements. ‘ ( Jacobs, J 1961 p. 37 ) In downtown country, many prosaic are exposed with motor vehicle on the street. The deficiency of effectual direction and the underlying unsafe created an image of pandemonium.
The job is besides charged upon urban distribution. The urban layout is unreasonable in some ways. Some of the authorities sections located in the cardinal concern territory, others located in the Nasser City which is one of the orbiter metropoliss. Industrial countries occupied the South of Helwan, lodging country are around the North. Major instruction institute, Cairo University, Al-Azhar University and Ain Shams University located in the different sites. As a consequence, about half of the citizen in Cairo is far off from their workplace. About 1 million people have to acquire out of town for work every twenty-four hours. Therefore, public transit becomes the cardinal issue of the economic development. From 1970 to 1980, riders are lifting about 10 % per twelvemonth, while public conveyance is about non increased. However, in 1990, it accommodated 13million riders. It is non easy to conceive of a coach can transport so many riders and pass more than an hr for about 1mile.
Inadequate of public conveyance is acquiring worse ; nevertheless, several solutions have been established by the Government to work out that. In order to alleviate the traffic crisis from the 70 ‘s, Cairo, built 13 large-scale expressway Bridgess and more than 3 1000s prosaic Bridgess. The new route system has been built ; a big route web connects the metropolis with other towns. New pealing route is built surround outside of the metropolis and connected with most of the territories. Particularly, the expressway span located in the bosom of 6th Oct. is up to 10 kilometres.
Besides, because of the high force per unit area of public transit, the demand of peep and fast conveyance revealed. ‘A survey was made about the needful capacity in 1990 for the transit power, which showed the demand of 8,400 Million trips a twenty-four hours for public transit like coachs and 2,770 million trips a twenty-four hours for other transit systems like taxis and autos. The existent available capacity for public transit is 4,872 million trips a twenty-four hours which is 3.5 million trips less than the needful capacity. ‘ The Government reached an understanding with France, in March 1982 1 September 1987. It takes five and a half old ages, costs 500 million Egyptian Pound to construct 43 kilometres Metro. This is the first metro in the Middle East and Africa, which operates daily from 5:30 to 12 midnight, with a rider capacity of 60000 people per hr. From 1996, they began to construct the 2nd line which connects from Shobra El Kheima to El Mounib and it finished building in 2005. But as the demand of the big capacity keep turning ; Egyptian Railway Authority has already proposed another two lines: Line 3, Mohandiseen to Cairo Int’l Airport ; Line 4, October to Oasis Highway to Mubarak Police Academy. It is expected to complete by 2020. The subway building to work out the traffic jobs has made a important part. Meanwhile, the Government started to develop the river conveyance on the Nile to alleviate the traffic congestion, peculiarly, the extremum traffic congestion force per unit area.
International Airport is besides a important factor in the economic development of a capital. Cairo international airdrome stands for the gateway of the metropolis and the state. It located in the Heliopolis territory, which is about 10miles off from the metropolis cardinal country. However, the air port will be connected with Metro Cairo in twosome of old ages. It besides is the 2nd busiest airdrome in Africa. ‘Cairo Airport handles about 3,400 day-to-day flights, more than 12,100 hebdomadal flights and about 125,000 annual flights. The airdrome has three terminuss with the 3rd ( Terminal 3 ) gap in April 2009 which houses Egypt Air and its Star Alliance spouses. ‘ ( Wikipedia 2009 ) Practically talking, the airdrome truly contributes international communicating of Cairo and promotes the development of economic.
‘Prime Minister Ahmed Nazif has commissioned the Ministry of Housing, a representative in the General Authority for Urban Planning, to fix a comprehensive program for the development of all Downtown Cairo. ‘ ( The Boursa Exchange 18 Oct. 2009 ) Therefore, several big business district development competitions have been hold late. The Urban Planning Authority planed to make unfastened infinite to the citizens by this renovation. For illustration, the Cairo Expo City designed by Zaha Hadid and the Sorouh City territory designed by Callison. From 2009, the Government is be aftering to develop the Ramses Square in the cardinal Cairo.
“ A comprehensive vision of the country will chiefly trust on the transmutation of business district ‘s chief streets into prosaic countries, so that it becomes an country of alfresco eating houses and infinites. ” Said Mustafa al-Madbouli, president of the Urban Planning Authority “ Among the other proposals is to plan the country ‘s chief squares, such as Talaat Harb and Abdel Moneim Riad Squares, in a typical manner, making multi-story belowground garages, so that most of the traffic remains belowground. ”
Decision about Cairo ‘s urbanisation jobs
Theoretically, the right urban be aftering scheme is a cogent evidence for urban development. It is of import to observe, Egypt is an agricultural state with a high proportion of the population, a big figure of provincials moved to metropoliss, peculiarly in big metropoliss. As consequence, the urban strength of Cairo in different degrees is rare in the universe. The big enlargement, rapid growing of population, lodging issue, traffic congestion and environmental jobs are coming out under this state of affairs. It shows that the chief development scheme today is to construct orbiter towns which can be self-sufficing and be portion from the metropolis. It is good for economic growing in the few old ages but it might be cause more and more job in the hereafter. First, many undertakings which have done or are traveling to make are non considered with sustainable issues. The architecture which introduced might non suit with the Cairo civilization and clime. Many critics are still oppugning if those new landmark development undertaking will truly pull people as the failure of 70 ‘s maestro program. Second, the big enlargement will trust on the substructure which cost immense sum of money and will take a long clip to finish. Before that, how to work out the traffic job? Lots of people live in new colony are still working in business district ; they need to go a long manner to work. So this will set more tonss on the transit once more. The enlargement will do more contrasts between old Cairo and new towns. The hapless and people who could non travel will go forth at that place. This has lead to a lower criterion of life than in other countries and the criterion of life in business district will maintain acquiring worse. However, the development should ne’er go forth the old metropolis buttocks and do flight for upper-mid category people. Cairo ‘s development procedure must do attempts to their self-awareness, to get the better of the inordinate dependance on external failings. The Government should forestall the blind transcript and follow other foreign capitals, seek for big development to go forth off from the world. Many issues are undergoing right now and those are truly what should be better and work out in the first topographic point.
- Alexander, C. ( 1977 ) , A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction, Oxford University Press.
- Cardinal Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics ( CAPMAS ) ( 1987 ) , Population, Housing and Establishment Census 1986, Preliminary Results, CAPMAS Press, Cairo.
- CAPMAS ( 1990 ) , The Statistics Annual Book for A.R.E. , 1952-1989, CAPMAS Press, Cairo.
- CAPMAS ( 1991 ) , Housing Unit of measurements and Buildings Characteristics, Final Report, Vol. 4, CAPMAS Press, Cairo.
- CAPMAS ( 1997 ) , Population, Housing, and Establishment Census 1996, Preliminary Results, CAPMAS Press, Cairo.
- Jacobs, J. ( 1961 ) , The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Random House Inc.
- World Architecture News.com, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.worldarchitecturenews.com/index.php? fuseaction=wanappln.projectview & A ; upload_id=12571
- The Boursa Exchange, hypertext transfer protocol: //nottooshaabi.wordpress.com/2009/10/18/the-boursafication-of-downtown
- Wikipedia, Transport in Cairo, hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transportation_in_Cairo ( modified on 21.11.09 )
- Wikipedia, Cairo Metro, hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cairo_Metro ( modified on 5.1.10 )