CODEX publication of the Codex Alimentarius is

CODEX ALIMENTARIUSCOMMISSION:

The
Codex Alimentarius Commission was established to implement the joint FAO/WHO
Food Standard Programme. Membership of the commission comprises those members
of FAO and / or WHO which have notified the organizations of their wish to be
considered as members.  The purpose to
joint FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme is to protect the health of consumers and
to ensure fair practices in the food trade; to promote coordination of all food
standards work undertaken by international governmental and non-                     govenmental organisation;
to determine priorities and initiate and guide the preparation of draft
standards through and with the aid of appropriate organisation; to finalize
standards and after acceptance by Governments, publish them in a Codex
Alimentarius either as regional or world – wide standards.

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The Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally
adopted food standards and related texts presented in a uniform manner. These
food standards and related texts aim at protecting consumers’ health and
ensuring fair practices in the food trade. The publication of the Codex
Alimentarius is intended to guide and promote the elaboration and establishment
of definitions and requirements for foods to assist in their harmonization and
in doing so to facilitate international trade.

The Codex Alimentarius includes standards for all the
principle foods, whether processed, semi-processed or raw, for distribution to
the consumer. Materials for further processing into foods should be included to
the extent necessary to achieve the purposes of the Codex Alimentarius as
defined. The Codex Alimentarius includes provisions in respect of food hygiene,
food additives, residues of pesticides and veterinary drugs, contaminants,
labelling and presentation, methods of analysis and sampling, and import and
export inspection and certification.

Codex
Alimentarius consists of four parts, which constitute the following:

PART I

Codex standards for
processed meat and poultry products

PART II

Codex of practice and
guidelines for processed meat and poultry products

PART III

Meat hygiene codes

PART IV

Soups and broths

 

 

Part
I consists of :

·        
Codex Standard for
Corned Beef (CODEX STAN 88-1981)

·        
Codex Standard for
Luncheon Meat (CODEX STAN 89-1981)

·        
Codex Standard for
Cooked Cured ham (CODEX STAN 96-1981)

·        
Codex Standard for
Cooked Cured Pork Shoulder (CODEX STAN 97-1981)

·        
Codex Standard for
Cooked Cured Chopped Meat (CODEX STAN 98-1981)

Part
II consists of:

·        
Recommended
International Code of Hygienic Practice for Processed Meat and Poultry
products(CAC/RCP 13-1976,Rev.1(1985))

·        
Recommended Code of
Hygienic Practice for Poultry Processing (CAC/RCP 14-1976)

·        
Recommended
International Code of practice for the production , Storage and Composition of
mechanically Separated Meat and Poultry meat intended for further processing
(CAC/ RCP 32-1983)

·        
Guide for the
microbiological quality of spices and herbs used in processed meat and poultry
products (CAC/GL 14-1991)

·        
Guidelines for the use
of non-meat protein products in processed meat and poultry products (CAC/GL
15-1991)

Part
III consists of:

·        
Recommended
International Code of Hygienic Practice for Fresh meat (CAC/RCP 11-1976 ,
Rev.1(1993))

·        
Recommended
International code  of Hygienic Practice
for game (CAC/RCP 29-1983,Rev.1(1993))

·        
Recommended
International Code for Ante-Mortem and Post-Mortem inspection of slaughter and
for Ante-Mortem andPost –mortem judgement of slaughter animal and meat (CAC/RCP
41-1993)

Popular
standards under CAC are : CODEX STAN 193-1995 ( General Standard for
contaminants and toxins in Food and Feed ), CAC/RCP 1-1969(General Principles
of Food Hygiene),CODEX STAN 1-1985(General Standard for the Labelling of
Prepackaged Foods), CAC/GL 2-1985(Guidelines on Nutrition Labelling),CAC/MRL
2(Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) and Risk Management Recommendations (RMRs) for
Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods), CODEX STAN 192-1995(General Standard
for Food Additives)

 

                                     INDIAN
REGULATIONS /STANDARDS

AGRICULTURAL AND
PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS EXPORT DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY (APEDA)

APEDA
was established by the Government of Indiaunder the Agricultural and Processes
Food Product Export DevelopmentAuthority Act passed by Parliament in December,1985.

APEDA
is mandated with the responsibility of export promotion and development of
following scheduled product:

·        
Fruits , vegetables and
their products

·        
Meat and meat products

·        
Poultry and poultry products

·        
Dairy products

(apeda.gov.in)

The
demand for India buffalo meat is gradually growing in export markets due to its
cost competitiveness, perceived organic nature and proportionof less fat.
Indian exporters have been able to meet international demand by utilizing
modern integrated abattoirs and meat processing facilities thereby working to
improve the quality of Indian product .The major steps taken for quality
assurance are:

·        
Licensing and
registration of meat plant / abattoirs

·        
Animal health certificates

Government
of India has nominated following agencies for issuance of health certificates:

·        
All state Directorates
of Animal Husbandry

·        
Export inspection
agencies

·        
Directorate of
marketing and inspection

·        
Deonar abattoir ,
Mumbai ( for chilled sheep and meat only)

 

PREVENTION OF FOOD
ADULTERATION ACT

The
Act was promulgated by Parliament in 1954 to make provision for the prevention
of adulteration of food. Broadly, the PFA Act covers food standards, general
procedures for sampling, analysis of food, powers of authorised officers,
nature of penalties and other parameters related to food.

           It deals with parameters relating to
food additives,preservatives, colouring matters, packing and labelling of foods,
prohibition and regulation of sales etc. The provisions of PFA Act and Rules are
implemented by State Government and local bodies as provided in rules. PFA is
repealed from 5th August 2011 by the Central government as per the
Food Safety and standards Act, 2006.

FOOD SAFETY AND
STANDARDS ACT 2006

An
Act to consolidate the laws related to food and to establish the Food Safety
and Standards Authority ofIndia for laying down science based standards for
articles of food and to regulate their manufacture,storage , distribution, sale
and import , to ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for matters
connected therewith .

Establishment
of Food safety and Standards Authority of India:

 The central Government shall, by notification,
establish a body to be known as Food safety and Standards Authority of India to
exercise the powers conferred on, and to perform the functions assigned to, it
underthis Act. The head office of Food Authority at Delhi.

Duties
and functions of Food Authority: It shall be the duty of the Food Authority to
regulate and monitor the manufacture, processing distribution, sale and import
of food so as to ensure safe and wholesome food. Without prejudice to the
provisions of sub-section. The Food Authority may by regulations specify:  

·        
The standards and
guidelines in relation to articles of food and specifying an appropriate system
for enforcing various standards notified under this act.

·        
The limits for use of
food additives, crop contaminants, pesticides residues, residues of veterinary drugs,
heavy metals, processing aids, mycotoxins, antibiotics and pharmacologically
active substances and irradiation of food.

·        
The mechanism and
guidelines for accreditation of certification bodies engaged in certification
of food safety management systems for food businesses

·        
The procedure and
enforcement of quality control in relation to any article of food imported in
India

·        
The method of sampling
, analysis and exchange of information among enforcement authorities

·        
Food labelling standard
including claims on health , nutrition , special dietary uses and food category
system for foods

·        
Provide scientific
advice and technical support to the Central Government and the State
Governments in the matters of farming the policy and rules in areas which have
a direct or indirect bearing on food safety and nutrition.

·        
Search, collect ,
collate and analyse and summarise relevant scientific and technical data
particularly relating to – food consumption and the exposure of individuals to
risk related to the consumption of food; incidence and prevalence of biological
risk; contaminants in food ; residues of various contaminants ; identification
of emerging risks and introduction of rapid alert system

·        
Promote, coordinate and
issue guidelines for the development of risk assessment methodologies and
monitor and conduct and forward messages on the health and nutritional risk of
food to the Central Government, State Government and Commission of Food Safety.

·        
Provide technical and
scientific advice and assistance to the Central Government and the State
Government in implementation of crisis management procedure with regard to FOOD
safety and to draw up a general plan for crisis management and work in close
cooperation with the  crisis unit set up
by the Central Government in this regard

·        
Establish a system of
network of organisation with the aim to facilitate a scientific cooperation
framework by thecoordination of activities , the exchange of information ,
thedevelopment and implementation of joint projects , the exchange of expertise
and best practices in the fields within the Food Authority’s responsibilities

·        
Provide scientific and
technical assistance to the Central Government and State Government for
improving cooperation with international organizations

·        
Take all such steps to
ensure that the public , consumers, interested parties and all levels of
panchayat receive rapid , reliable, objective and comprehensive information
through appropriate methods and means

·        
Contribute to the
development of international technical standards for food , sanitary and
phytosanitary standards

·        
Promote consistency
between international technical standards and domestic food standards while
ensuring that the level of protection adopted in the country is not reduced

·        
Promote general
awareness as to food safety and food standards.

MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS
ORDER (MFPO)

Processing
of meat products is licensed under Meat Food Products Order, 1973. The main
objective of MFPO are to regulate production and sale of meat food products
through licensing of manufacturers , enforce sanitary and hygienic conditions
prescribed for production of wholesome meat food products , exercise strict
quality control at all stages of production of meat food products , fish
products including chilled poultry , etc.

Under
the provision of MFPO all manufacturers of meat food products engaged in the
business of manufacturing , packing, repacking, relabelling meat food products
meant for sale are licensed but excluding those manufacturers who manufactures
such products for consumption on the spot like restaurants, hotel, snack bar,
eating house or any similar establishment. Depending on the source of meat the
manufacturers are licensed under Category A, B and C.

Category
A: Includes those manufacturers or licensees of meat food products who possess
their own slaughter house.

Category
B: Includes those manufacturers of meat products who purchases meat from
approved slaughter houses.

Category
C: Includes manufacturers of meat products, who purchase raw meat from other
sources.

Meat
Food Products Order , contains four schedules:

·        
The First Schedule

§  Deals
with application for licence or renewal of licence under MFPO

§  The
information related to applicant , address of factory , source of raw material,
description of meat food products which the applicants purposes to manufacture,
installed capacity , a plan of factory and a  list of equipments has to be provided

§  Application
for renewal of licence should invariably contain the statement pertaining to
the quality and value of meat food products manufactured in the previous year.

 

·        
The Second schedule

§  Deals  with minimum sanitary requirements to be
compiled with by a licence

§  It
contains detailed instructions regarding factory premises , construction ,
doors, windows and ceiling , plumbing and drainage system , equipment and
manufacturing area , cold storage facilities , precautions against flies , rats
and mice , water supply , personnel hygiene and vaccination of factory workers
, provisions of proper aprons and head gears , etc.

·        
The Third Schedule

§  Deals
with hygienic requirements to be compiled with by a license who also slaughters
animals in his factory.

§  It
contains detailed instructions regarding separation between clean and dirty
sections within the slaughter house, provision of lairage, slaughter hall and
refrigeration facilities,antemortemexamination, human slaughter,postmortem
inspection and disposal of condemned carcasses or organs, etc.

·        
The Fourth Schedule

§  Deals
with the requirements to be compiled with as regards to packaging, marking and
labelling the containers of meat food products.

§  It
contains detailed instruction with respect to proper packing and sealing of
flexible containers, use of internal lacquers and hermetic sealing in tin plate
cans, use of bottles and jars.

§  As
per MFPO standards, canned meat food products should not contain poisonous
elements viz. lead, copper, arsenic, tin, zinc, in excess of 2.5, 20, 2, 250
and 50 ppm respectively by weight.

In the process MFPO
officers conduct inspection of meat food product factories and premises
regularly. They conduct frequent surprise visits to licensed units so as to
enforce the implementation of MFPO regulations. Samples of meat food products
are collected and sent to regional and central AGMARK laboratories for
specified testing. At present there are more than 220 licensed meat food
products units under MFPO throughout India. These units manufacture as many as
185 different types of meat food products. Thus, MFPO is playing a major role
in safeguarding the interest of meat food products consumers