Questions of art are ever of a great involvement and ambiguity of reading. Art is a thing, which demands non merely the cognition of the inclinations and manners, but the right reading and perceptual experience of them in head.
In the given paper we would touch upon constructs of two celebrated tendencies in modern art: cubism and daddy. We would every bit good analyze the common technique of these two manners – the technique of the montage in art. The montage of daddy and the montage of cubism have different maps and our undertaking today is to see the difference and do certain decisions, which will be based upon the analyses of the plants of the representatives of these inclinations.
One of the most interesting and extraordinary motions in art is dada or it is besides called Dadaism. From the really hearing of this word it may look that this is slightly infantile, unimportant, and non deep. But in fact, Dadaism means a motion, reflecting beliefs of a group of displeased people. “ A moving ridge of irrational and concern for integrity had swept Europe in reaction to ninetieth-century scientism and philistinism and was intensified by the World War I ” ( Hugo Ball ) . Subsequently, the group of European intellectuals invented their ain vision of art and tried to convey it into multitudes. The daddy motion foremost appeared in 1916 and its thoughts continued developing up to 1923.
The footing for this artistic and literary motion was the horror of the war actions of those times. Peoples had to run off from their places and fell, to get away someplace to those topographic points, to happen shelter and to go refugees someplace ( largely in the towns of New York, Barcelona and Zurich ) , where they would experience themselves comfy and hope for lasting and returning to their fatherland. These people, particularly the 1s from Germany and France, were so angry with their authorities, they could non understand how it was possible to allow the war happen and to take away so many lives of guiltless people. They became so incensed and as a protest to all this, they created the little group of like-minded individuals and developed their thoughts through the artistic and literary activity. Some of the most celebrated laminitiss of Dadaism were: Jean Arp, Richard Hulsenbeck, Tristan Tzara, Marcel Janco, and Emmy Hennings. People – protagonists of daddy had one and the lone regulation: ne’er follow any regulations. They did non lose any public chance to demo their protest to patriotism, philistinism or any other traits, which may take to the war. They did non believe a batch about the name of their motion, they took the first word they saw in a German – Gallic dictionary and were sword lilies that it meant “ babe talk ” from Gallic, because their literary and artistic activity reminded of the clumsy, eldritch things, small kids normally do. “ Dada ” besides means “ yes-yes ” from Russian and “ there-there ” from German. The multiple-meaning and such a nonsensical word particularly pictured diverseness of Dada thoughts.
Peoples, who founded Dadaism, were non existent Masterss of art and literature. They were laypersons, believing that if there can be chaos in the system of authorities, there can be chaos in art excessively. So, dada representatives can be barely called people of art, and their art, in fact, can be called non-art, created by non-artists. They were of strong belief, that if the society has no sense, the art must non besides have any significance. They were all express joying at bourgeois society and seeking to acquire free of bourgeois manner of life and wonts.
The participants said: “ Dads is irony ” , “ Dada is political relations ” , “ Dada will kick you in the buttocks ” ( Sarah Ganz Blythe ) . Hugo Ball, one of the leaders of such a motion, even wrote the “ Dada Manifesto ” , where he carefully explains the significance of the word together with the motion ‘s common characteristics. He says, that the most effectual and the quickest manner to go celebrated is to state “ dada ” ( which means to follow Dada inclinations ) . One needs nil to execute his artistic work: neither the endowment, nor the cognition. So, subsequently
Dadaists even began to add nonsensical to celebrated art chef-d’oeuvres, likely because of the deficiency of personal thoughts. As an illustration, one of the daddy “ creative persons ” Marcel Duchamp introduced his work: he painted a mustache on a transcript of Mona Lisa, sing it to go perfect. Another “ daddy maestro ” in a domain of sculpture, performed his celebrated chef-d’oeuvre “ The Fountain ” , which appeared to be a transcript of an ugly urinal. And the alike plants were introduced really frequently, one better than another.
Of class the populace could non respond calmly on such an “ look of endowment ” and they were truly annoyed. But Dada followings were non sad about this, on the contrary, they found it really encouraging and even animating. To do indignation and disgust of people was one of the purposes of Dada plants.
Dada is the basis to abstract art and sound poesy, a starting point for public presentation art, a preliminary to postmodernism, an influence on dad art, a jubilation of anti-art to be subsequently embraced for anarchy-political utilizations in the sixtiess and the motion that lay the foundation for Surrealism. And so, if to retrieve the chief characteristics of postmodernism, surrealism and even futurism, one may decidedly happen common traits with daddy. At those times it was considered to be hideous, uncommon and interrupting the bing ways of showing art, but now it does non do rude and disgusting feelings, because we already got used to this sort of art, and it is now easier to name it “ art ” than it was earlier. The lone word for daddy at those times was “ anti-art ” , because the significance of art was non so broad. It was non that easy to present something new and to anticipate it to be treated like s piece of art, comparing with today: picture with the spray on the walls is art, which has a modern name – graffito.
About all what appears and comes to the people ‘s life spontaneously, disappears in the same manner. Dada is non an exclusion. In 1923, after several old ages of disgraceful being, Dadaism exhausted itself. “ Today, over ninety old ages later it is acknowledged as one of the twentieth-century ‘s most of import daring motions ” ( Anne Umland ) . Of class, as it was said earlier, some of its characteristics could?? non but remain and revive later, but dada as an anti-art motion dissolved itself everlastingly.
Another manner of art we shall talk about is cubism. At first it appeared as an thought, and subsequently developed into the separate manner of art, characterized by three chief characteristics: geometricity, simultaneousness and transition ( the imbrication and interpenetration of planes ) . The thoughts of cubism appeared in 1907 and the traits of it we may still see in the modern art. This is a manner, which one of the Numberss of manners managed to stay and develop through the flow of clip and execute even now, it managed to salvage its individualism on the background of 1000s of other different manners and genres.
The thing is that cubists` creative persons tried to picture things non as we see them, but as they truly are. There is besides a position, which says that cubism in some of its plants depicts things in different dimensions.
The first works in the manner of cubism are considered to be found in Picasso ‘s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon ( 1907 ) , where he keeps to the three chief characteristics of this fantastic manner. But in fact, it is hard to state that these really plants were the initial 1s of cubism manner, because they were non shown to the populace from the really beginning. Other scientists believe, that the first Cubist pictures were made by Georges Braque ‘s in his series of L’Estaque landscapes executed in 1908.
However, from this really clip the motion of Cubism began to develop really quickly and it was met by the promotion with great involvement and great delectation. As Cubism is non a rapidly forgotten motion and it is still appreciated by the modern creative persons, it is of import to state that Cubism has undergone a series of alterations through its development. It has four chief phases: Early Cubism or Cezannisme ( 1908-1910 ) , Analytic Cubism ( 1910-12 ) , Man-made Cubism ( 1912-1914 ) and Late Cubism ( 1915-present ) .
Analytic Cubism is characterized by the careful development of Cubism as a manner and formation of the exact characteristics of it. The two chief creative persons, stand foring this period are Picasso and Braque. They work hard by contriving different signifiers and forms and the manner of picturing them on the canvas. Man-made cubism grew out of analytic cubism. Picasso together with Braque understood that utilizing analytical forms, symbols and signifiers their plants became more generalised and simplified. They did non halt contriving other agencies of showing existent objects and came to a fantastic find. Now they used fragments of mundane things: newspapers, playing cards, sheets of paper and so on and so forth to picture the interaction of present life and art. Picasso was non afraid of experiments ; he wanted to detect the wholly new manner of art, which would picture the new mentality of the people of those times. And this later helped them to do one and great artistic technique: montage. The definition of montage is rather simple and may look abstract. Collage is gluing small pieces of different stuffs onto paper or canvas. These may be sheets of newspaper, fabrics, exposures, bank notes, wool, thin wood atoms, threads or any other things. It is all done to experience the image better and for better perceptual experience of it. Picasso`s thoughts to demo the image in several dimensions about came true: he managed to make images in two- and even three-dimensions. Picasso, every bit good as Braque a small subsequently, tried to take objects as they were, without any divergences, and precisely this desire pushed them to the innovation of the new artistic technique. With the flow of clip these two great creative persons were wholly certain, that some of the stuffs possess a wholly alone expressiveness. Pablo Picasso wanted to halt the ocular perceptual experience of art and to get down the epoch of the new one – tactile feeling perceptual experience. This is the of import philosophical inclination, taking at the deformation of the accustomed signifiers and making of the new manner of thought and new world, which is, in its bend, non an easy undertaking.
If to talk about the montage of cubism, it is obvious that it influences the personal perceptual experience of the object, confirms the instability of the universe, changeableness of unchangeable things, by making new images. The image of the montage tends to wipe out the boundary lines of the infinite. Interrupting up the plane of the image into several smaller planes creates an unbelievable consequence: the creative person goes out of the boundary lines of the image ; he increases the zone of its influence. The writer here is a mind, philosopher and the Godhead of the universe of the image. The writer feels himself the maestro of the object, he feels that he have an chance to govern this object and to pull strings it. As an illustration, allow us take the image of Picasso “ Still life with the ruddy paper ” ( 1918 ) . After the first glimpse onto this image, one may hold the dual feelings: both incomprehensibility and distinguishable vision of what happens on the canvas. The thing is that this image is one of those, which a individual can watch and watch for hours, opening something new for him. At first, we can clearly see the guitar, one playing card, the decoration, the tabular array, the portion of the chair, notes, paper, the half of the lemon and so on. The intent of these things on the tabular array is ill-defined but this is non the point. What is curious is a graphic characteristic of the montage – there are several boundary lines on the image, and from clip to clip they appear in different topographic points. This is a sort of a mysterious, because with the particular technique Picasso managed to increase the perceptual experience of the image from the ocular degree to the abstract, fanciful one. The spectator can non but dream, illusion about the image, watching exhaustively onto every item on the tabular array and seeking to set sense to all this. Here we can one more clip be convinced that the writer of this work is a maestro of ain world, he is a maestro of constructivism: he tries to make something new and he has non any boundary lines and restrictions. This is a great power – to make your ain universe with the objects of the given world, because the writer himself is God, making his ain universe.
It may besides look that this image is nil more but the pile of useless things, but if we think a small, we will understand that this still life is a complete contemplation of our universe: unstable, diverse, intricate and ill-defined. And it needs some alterations and inventions, which the writer tries to carry through with the aid of his pictures. So, the montage in cubism is largely the manner of building the new theoretical account of our universe and the manner to reflect the personal position onto the bing world.
Dadaists offer the new position on the montage technique. Their montage was the embodiment of unclearness, absurdness and pandemonium. Let us take for illustration the celebrated work of Max Ernst – The Hat Makes The Man. If we look at this montage, we will understand that there is nil more but the jeer of people: there is non a individual individual on the canvas. Merely remotely it may remind us of people in chapeaus, if to see the image from the distance. The thing is, Ernst cut out images of chapeaus from different catalogues and glued them to the canvas, antecedently linked them with each other and created “ people ” by pulling cylinders of different colourss, joined with each other every bit good. Apparently, the chief thing in the montage is non the figure of chapeaus or cylinders, but the unknown emptiness, which is depicted by agencies of bright colourss. Since bright colourss were non antecedently considered to picture sad things, in this instance they act absolutely: incompatible is compatible. As it was said before, dada creative persons were non artists themselves, they were supporters, Rebels, people who wanted to alter the bing manner of life and to demo their protest to everyone in the universe. Consequently, their art aimed at flooring people, seeking to do different, helter-skelter and awful emotions. Furthermore we can non but say about the personality of the writer of such a montage. The writer is individualism, and the manner he influences the audience is besides single. The manner each individual from the audience percepts the image in an single manner. But still, the consequence is ever about the same: daze and zero apprehension. And, it must be said that they managed to make it. Possibly, the love to the terra incognita is considered to be born precisely in this period of clip. All the Dada works represent the complete nihilism ; they aim at the entire deformation of humans` encephalons, at the rejection of any intimation of logic.
As a decision we can state, that montage in dada motion and in cubism perform different maps. Dada montage represents the thoughts of pandemonium and the absence of logic, whereas in the motion of cubism montage is the agencies of making new, single world on the footing of the subjective point of position of the writer. Nevertheless, montage is a good signifier of showing feelings and interior emotions, ne’er mind that in different countries it means different things.