Definition of combustion of fossil fuelsCoal, Oil and Gas are 3 non renewable hydrocarbon energy sources. . The process of fossil fuels being burnt to generate energy is called combustion. Fossil fuels are created when methane and oxygen in the earths crust slowly gets compressed by heat and pressure over the course of hundreds of years. The final product is carbon dioxide and water. This is the primary cause of global warming.(http://chemistry.elmhurst.edu/vchembook/511natgascombust.html.)Causes why we burn fossil fuels The main cause of burning fossil fuel is the efficiency of energy from them. They can generate huge amounts of energy, even if consumers use a small amount of fossil fuels such as oil or coal. Even renewable energies cannot be displaced to generate the same amount of energy that fossil fuels do. Fossil fuels are currently widely available and cheap to extract contrasting with renewable energy sources which are currently not as cost effective. A fossil fuel plant can be facilitated in most areas in the world as long as it gets large quantities of fuel to generate power. These fossil fuel plants are capable of generating huge amount of energy at a single location.Effects of burning fossil fuel Combustion of fossil fuel can have impressive impact on the environment. The massive carbon dioxide emission can cause ‘greenhouse effect’. The more greenhouse gases which include carbon dioxide in the atmosphere traps the heat and fewer heat escapes into space, rising the temperature of the earth. This is because the thickness of greenhouse gas layer grows due to the massive greenhouse gases emission. The trapped heat remains inside of the layer, which makes the temperature of the earth to rise. Moreover, the rise in temperature damages to habitat of animals for example polar bears. The melting of ice cap disturbs polar bears to sustain their lives. Also, it leads to natural disasters such as flooding which can destroy the environment. The combustion of fossil fuels releases not only carbon dioxide, but also sulphur dioxide which is dissolved in the water. Pollutants that include sulfur dioxide in cloud water and precipitates can fall to the ground and this progress is called acid rain. The acid rain can cause the release of substances that are toxic to trees and plants into the soil. Possible solutions The solution utilizing technology is capturing carbon dioxide from the stacks of coal-fired power plants, or directly from the atmosphere. The basic ways of this technology are post-combustion and pre-combustion carbon capture. With post-combustion carbon capture, carbon dioxide is trapped after the combustion of fossil fuels. By filtering, carbon dioxide is separated from the flue gases which contain carbon dioxide, water vapor, sulfur dioxides and nitrogen oxides. Filter is a solvent that absorbs carbon dioxide. The solvent can be heated later, which will release water vapor and leave concentrated carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is stored underground. Eventually, only 10% of carbon dioxide releases to the atmosphere. (https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/carbon-capture1.htm) Figure 1 – It shows simple diagram of the steps of pre combustion carbon capture. With pre-combustion carbon capture, carbon dioxide is captured before combustion. Heating fossil fuel in pure oxygen result in carbon monoxide and hydrogen. This mix of carbon and monoxide is put into the bottom of a flask. By passing through catalytic converter with steam, the gases in the flask will naturally begin to rise, and a chemical called amine will be flowed into the top. The amine which binds with the carbon dioxide will fall to the bottom of the flask, separating with hydrogen which rises up and go out of the flask. After that, the carbon dioxide rises to the top and the amine drops to the bottom of the flask through heating them. source: Allen.(https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/carbon-capture1.htm) The Environmental Protection Agency has instituted recent standard, ‘The Clean Power Plan’, that will diminish carbon emissions from fossil fuel – fired power plants. This can include investing renewable energy and implement the facilities of renewable energy to from coal-fired power system. EPA can establish temporary and final carbon dioxide emission performance rates to restrain the massive carbon emission from combustion of fossil fuels in power plants.(https://www.ucsusa.org/our-work/global-warming/solutions/global-warming-solutions-reduce-emissions#.WmlrvVRl9PY) Evaluation of possible solutionsPossible SolutionsStrengthWeaknessPost – combustion carbon capture This process is possible to apply in older power plants. This is because adding a filter is a simple way to trap carbon dioxide as it travels up a smokestack. Carbon capture can prevent a significant amount- TOO VAGUE of a power plant’s emissions from entering the atmosphere.SOURCE The post-combustion process requires is inefficient due to high cost and difficulty to implement MORE DETAIL to compress the gas to be transported to filter. (https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/carbon-capture1.htm)Pre – combustion carbon captureThis solution can be helpful to reduce carbon emission from fossil fuels pre combustion.The pre combustion process is lower in cost than post combustion, because it does not have to compress the gases which are created after combustion. It also can maintain the efficiency of fossil fuel power with reducing carbon emission. Moreover, iit provides a much higher concentration of carbon dioxide than post-combustion. It is hard to be applied for old power plants, because it is complicated method, and hard to implement catalytic converter with changing the original system of power plants. ????? ?????The Clean Power PlanRenewable energy is not associated with pollution, which means no carbon emission occur. Its strength is that renewable energy facilities such as solar panel and wind turbine are able to be utilized both in household and power plants. Renewable energy is not limited at generating energy, unless natural resources are exhausted.The application of the technology is expensive and would add a cost to the price of facilities of renewable energy. Due to this weakness, the most coal-fired power plants will not apply it to them. Solution:To solve this shortcoming, the government can make adjustment about the legislation to subsidize to the facilities that use renewable energy.