Effects Of Compounded Diets With Varying Crude Biology Essay

Aquaculture has been accepted the universe over as a agency for increasing fish production and a underdeveloped state like Nigeria with her huge resources offer enormous possibilities for fish civilization ( Dada and Gnanadoss, 1983 ) . Aquaculture enlargement has been in slow procedure as private sector fish husbandmans face major restraints, such as deficiency of seed and quality provender ( FAO, 2003 ) . Fish is an of import beginning of both nutrient and income to many people in developing states. In Africa, every bit much as 5 % of the population, some 35 million people depends entirely or partially on the piscaries sector for their support ( FAO, 1996a ) . It is estimated that by 2050, when universe population is projected to be over 9 billion, Africa will hold to increase nutrient production by 300 % , Latin America by 80 % and Asia 70 % to supply minimally equal diets for the jutting population of 2 billion, 810 million and 5.4 billion people in the several parts ( Anon,1997 ) .

The ingestion and demand for fish as a inexpensive beginning of protein is on the addition in Africa, because of the degree of poorness in the land. The huge bulk of the fish supply in most instances comes from the rivers in the continent. While gaining control piscaries based on species that are soon exploited seem to hold reached their natural bounds ( FAO, 1996b ) , there is considerable possible to spread out aquaculture in Africa in order to better nutrient security ( Kapetsy, 1994 ; Engle 1997, Jamu and Ayinla, 2003 ) . Although potencies abound in the continent for the development of feasible fish agriculture, one of the major hinderances to the development of aquaculture industry in Africa is the deficiency of locally produced high-quality fish provender. Fish requires high quality nutritionally balanced diet for growing and attainment of market size within the shortest possible clip. Therefore local production of fish provender is really important to the development and sustainability of aquaculture in Africa particularly, in the rural countries. For aquaculture to boom and bridge the already bing broad spread between fish demand and supply particularly in the Sub-Saharan Africa, the critical function of locally produced fish provender in cut downing production cost, thereby doing fish farming attractive to both private and commercial investors and finally hike fish production can non be overemphasized.

Catfish household Clariidae is really popular in Nigeria due to its civilization feature which has endeared it to many fish husbandmans. Catfishs of the genus Clarias ( Siluroidei, Claridae ) are widespread in tropical Africa and Asia ( Sudarto, 2007 ) . Clarias gariepinus, by and large considered to be the most of import clariid species for aquaculture in Nigeria. Clarias gariepinus is a freshwater mudcat with great aquaculture potencies ( Teugels et al. , 1990 ; Williams, 1997 ) . The species is widely accepted by fish husbandmans and consumers because of its gustatory sensation, fast growing rate and moderate monetary value. They are widely cultured owing to their high market monetary value, fast growing rate, disease opposition ability and ability to defy inauspicious pool conditions particularly low O content.

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Traditionally fish repast had ever been the commonest and most popular beginning of protein for commercial fish feed production. Johnston ( 2004 ) reported that planetary supply of fish repast would non be sufficient to fulfill demand during the class of 2004, despite a slow fish repast market in Europe at nowadays, harmonizing to the organisation which represents the word ‘s fish repast makers. Johnston ( 2004 ) further opined that the planetary stringency ( of fish repast ) could be exacerbated by the possible lifting of a current EU prohibition on fish repast in ruminants diets in January 2005. Whatever the scenario globally, fish repast will ever be the costliest individual ingredient protein input in fish provender production.

However, the graduated table of commercial fish civilization is hampered by, among other factors, the non-availability of suited and cost-efficient auxiliary provender. Consequently most small-scale and homestead fish husbandmans resort to the aboriginal pattern of feeding with individual ingredient provenders which are normally in repast or bran signifier. The usage of well-compounded pelleted provender well increases the net income border of fish production. However, fish provenders are expensive and can account for over two-thirds of the variable costs in fish civilization operations ( Balogun et al. , 1992 ) .


The purposes and aims of this experiment is as follows:

To intensify fish provender with changing dietetic protein degree ( 30 % CP, 35 % CP, 40 % CP and 45 % CP ) utilizing local protein beginnings like blood repast, soybean repast and Indian potato repast.

To find the growing response of Clarias on readily available local protein beginnings like blood repast, soybean repast and Indian potato repast in practical provenders in Glass fish tank.

Chapter TWO


Protein which is the most expensive constituent of fish provender is really of import for fish growing. It is a complex organic molecule that is made up of different amino acid linked together by polypeptide bond. In nature, over 200 aminic acid occur ( Craig and Helfrich, 2002 ) , but merely about 20 amino acid are common. 10 are indispensable while 10 are non-essential aminic acid.

Dietary protein is used by fish for growing, energy and care ( Kaushik and Medale, 1994 ) . Protein demand for maximal growing of any species is a logical measure to the development of a cost-efficient provender for the fish, and entails finding the minimal sum required to bring forth maximal growing and non be used for energy ( Sang-Min and Tae-Jun, 2005 ) . Therefore, any decrease in dietetic protein degree without impacting fish growing can well cut down the cost of provender. However, direction, environmental factors and fish size can impact dietetic food degrees for optimal public presentation.

Several research workers have carried out work on dietetic petroleum protein demand of mudcats. Jamabo and Alfred-Ockiya ( 2008 ) researched on the effects of dietetic protein degrees on the growing public presentation of Heterobranchus bidorsalis ( Geoffroy- Saint-Hilaire, 1809 ) fingerlings from the Niger Delta. Fingerlings of Heterobranchus bidorsalis were fed six isocaloric diets at different petroleum protein degrees at 5 % of organic structure weight to find the growing public presentation. Growth rate and weight addition increased increasingly with dietetic protein level to a upper limit at 40 % . Significant differences ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) were recorded for the growing indices. The alimentary use parametric quantities had variable consequences among the interventions. There was no important difference in evident provender transition ratio and the nitrogen metamorphosis but evident protein efficiency ratio showed important fluctuations. The overall consequences indicated that fish fed 40 % dietetic protein diet performed best in weight addition, nutrient transition ratio and nitrogen metamorphosis.

Otubusin et al. , ( 2009 ) studied on Feeding Trials utilizing Local Protein Sources to Replace Fishmeal in Pelleted Feeds in Catfish ( Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822 ) Culture. The feeding test was conducted to find the growing response of mudcat ( Clarias gariepinus ) on readily available local protein beginnings like blood repast ( BM ) , soybean repast ( SB ) , and Indian potatos cake ( GC ) in practical provenders in net-hapas ( L x B x H = 1m x 1m x 1m ) hung on bamboo raft in a concrete armored combat vehicle ( L x B x H: 4.4m x 2.4m x 1.2m ) . Fish repast ( FM ) was used as control. The isonitrogenous diets ( about 40 % petroleum protein ) were formulated to incorporate 25 % inclusion of each protein beginning ( singly, per provender ) and a changeless sum of bed ‘s dressed ores ( 18.62 % ) , maize bran ( 55.87 % ) and biomix ( vitamin premix ) 0.50 % . Each practical provender was tested in replicates of 50 fingerlings ( mean weight per fish = 0.20kg ) per cyberspace coop arranged in a wholly randomised design. The fish were fed twice daily at a feeding rate of 10 % of fish biomass for 50days. Relative growing rate ( RGR ) , day-to-day weight addition ( DWG ) , specific growing rate ( SGR ) , survival, feed transition ratio ( FCR ) , protein efficiency ratio ( PER ) and body composing of catfish juveniles were measured. There were no important differences ( P & A ; gt ; 0.05 ) in the concluding mean weight, SGR, FCR and endurance among the fish under all interventions. However, fish fed with blood repast and fish repast in provenders individually had significantly higher ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) values of DWG, RGR and PER than those fed SB and GC individually. The consequences showed that 100 % of fish repast can be replaced by blood repast with no inauspicious effects on growing, endurance and provender transition ratio of Clarias gariepinus juveniles.

Zulfikar ( 2001 ) investigated the interactions of dietetic protein and energy and their use by African mudcat, Clarias gariepinus ( Burchell, 1822 ) ( 12.43 ± 0.05 g ) , a series of four nutritionary experiments ( triplicate groups of 20 fish per 30-L armored combat vehicle at 28 ± 1 & A ; deg ; C, for 8 hebdomads ) were carried out utilizing fish repast based diets. Optimum dietetic protein to energy ratio ( P/E ratio ) and optimal lipoid to carbohydrate ratio ( L/CHO ratio ) were investigated. Based on optimised dietetic P/E ratio and L/CHO ratio, optimal eating government and compensatory growing were besides investigated in this species. In the experiments to optimize P/E ratio and L/CHO ratio fish were offered each diet at 5 % of their organic structure weight per twenty-four hours adjusted biweekly. In the optimal eating government experiments, fish were offered each diet to appetite or to a restricted degree. The restricted governments were achieved by offering fish diminishing fixed feeding rates with increasing dietetic protein degree. Surveies on compensatory growing were conducted in two stages each of 4 hebdomads. In the first stage, triplicate groups of 30 fish and in the 2nd stage triplicate groups of 20 fish ( per 30- L armored combat vehicle ) were offered the diet in six assorted feeding agendas at two feeding governments i.e. appetency and restricted. The restricted government was achieved by offering fish 1 % ( maintenance ration ) of their organic structure weight per twenty-four hours adjusted after biweekly weighing. Optimum dietetic P/E and L/CHO ratios were 20.54-mg protein/kJ of GE and 0.40 g/g severally, with a petroleum protein degree over 40 % and gross energy of more than 20 kJ/g GE. The consequences of look intoing feeding governments suggest that dietetic protein degree could be reduced from over 40 % to 35 % by feeding to appetite based on the above optimised dietetic P/E and L/CHO ratios. Addition of dietetic energy as lipid at changing protein degrees resulted in increased growing, protein and energy use in C. gariepinus. Based on optimised dietetic P/E ratio, dietetic saccharide degrees were increased ( with accompaniment decrease in dietetic lipid degrees ) ensuing in a tendency towards higher growing public presentation, protein and energy use. Protein and energy use did non vary ( P & A ; gt ; 0.05 ) with feeding government or dietetic protein degree. C. gariepinus showed partial compensatory growing under jumping periods of feeding a restricted ( care demands ) and appetite ration and besides showed higher provender, protein, lipid and energy use efficiencies in comparing to appetite eating.

Chapter THREE



3.1.1 Location

This research work was carried out at the Institute of Oceanography fish farm in the University of Calabar, Cross River State of Nigeria. It is located at latitude 04Es55.9E?N and longitude 08Es26E?E along the coastal field of Nigeria surrounding the gulf of Guinea. This country is the peninsular within the Calabar and great Kwa River, it is 42m above the sea degree

3.1.2 Climate

The survey country clime is characterized by a long moisture season from April to October and a dry season from November to March. Mean one-year rainfall is about 2000m ( Akpan and Ofem, 1993 ) . A short period of drouth occurs in the moisture season around August/September, which is called August drouth. There is normally a cold dry dust period between December and January referred to as harmatan season. Temperature ranges from 22EsC in the moisture season to 35EsC in the dry season. Relative humidness is above 60 % at all season with close to 90 % during the moisture season ( Akpan, and Ofem, 1993 and Ama-Abasi et Al, 2004 ) .

3.1.3 Vegetation

The survey country flora is the rain forest stopping point to the Rhizophora mangle belts. Mangrove with major species such as Rhizophora racemosa, A. Africana, Rhizophora harissonii, Laguncularia racemosa while the chief nypa thenar is Nypa fruticaus. Panamas species is a major free species that forms the mix wood of the country.


Human activities in the survey country include agriculture, hunting, boat edifice, and sand excavation.


This experiment lasted for 10 hebdomads and was carried out in the Hatchery composite of the Institute of Oceanography, University of Calabar where 8 fish tanks mensurating 96 ten 50 ten 29 cm3 were used. Four different sorts of fish provender labelled A, B, C, D were formulated with changing dietetic protein flat i.e. 30 % CP ( Feed A ) , 35 % CP ( Feed B ) , 40 % CP ( Feed C ) and 45 % CP ( Feed D ) . The experiment was carried out in extra and the fishes were fed twice daily at 5 % of their organic structure weight.


A sum of 80 fingerlings of the African mudcat Clarias gariepinus was collected from the Institute of Oceanography Hatchery Complex, University of Calabar and used for this experiment.



Experimental diet was composed of the undermentioned ingredients ; Blood repast ( BM ) , soybean repast ( SBM ) , Groundnut repast ( GNM ) , vitamin premix, palm oil, wheat offal ( WO ) , Vitamin C, lysine, wheat flour, Na chloride ( NaCl ) , and Bone ash.


Four different experimental provender ( A, B, C and D ) were formulated with changing dietetic protein ( 30 % CP, 35 % CP, 40 % CP and 45 % CP ) utilizing pearson square method ( Felaye, 1992 ) . After aggregation and processing of the ingredients, they were weighed and assorted as shown in table 1. After blending, the provenders were moulded by manus and thenceforth sun dried to cut down wet content and besides to forestall growing the of mold.

Table 1: per centum composing of the provender ingredient in the four experimental provender.

FEED Ingredients



( 30 % CP )


( 35 % CP )


( 40 % CP )


( 45 % CP )

Blood Meal ( BM )





Soya Bean repast ( SBM )





Groundnut Meal ( GM )





Wheat Offal ( WO )





Vitamin C





Bone Ash/Calcium





Wheat Flour





Palm oil





Vitamin premix





Sodium Chloride ( Nacl )










Entire Percentage Composition






The undermentioned growing indices were calculated at the terminal of the experimental period. Length addition ( centimeter ) , weight addition ( g ) , growing rate ( GR ) , specific growing rate ( SGR ) , average growing rate ( MGR ) and per centum weight addition ( % ) .


weight addition was obtained by deducting the initial weight from the concluding weight and is given below ;

Weight addition ( g ) = concluding weight ( g ) ( w2 ) – Initial weight ( g ) ( w1 )

3.5.2 Specific growing rate ( SGR )

This given as the per centum of weight addition per twenty-four hours

SGR = lnw2-lnw, x 100 ( brett et al 1969 styczynska et Al, 1969 )


Where W2 = concluding weight at terminal of clip T2

W1 = initial weight at get downing of Time T1

ln = base of natural logarithm


This was calculated as the mean weight addition in million gram per twenty-four hours.

M.G.R = W2 -W1 x 100 mg/g twenty-four hours ( Ricker, 1973 )

0.5 ( W2+ W1 ) T

Where W2 = concluding weight ( g )

W1 = initial weight ( g )

T = experimental period in yearss

3.5.4 GROWTH Rate

This is given as W2 – W1 x 100


Where W2 = concluding weight

W1 = initial weight


Water quality parametric quantities determined were pH, H2O temperature and dissolved O. pH was measured utilizing pH metre, H2O temperature was measured utilizing mecury in glass thermometer, dissolved O was measured utilizing O metre and ammonia degree was determined colorimetrically.

Statistical Analysis

Datas obtained from the experiment was analysed utilizing analysis of discrepancy ( ANOVA ) for important differences at 0.05 chance degree.

Chapter FOUR



Growth indices examined in this experiments include weight addition ( g ) , growing rate ( G.R ) , specific growing rate ( S.G.R ) and average growing rate ( M.G.R ) . The maximal weight addition was obtained in fish Federal diet D incorporating 45 % CP ( 79.62 + 1.14g ) followed by fish fed diet C incorporating 35 % CP ( 63.30 + 0.90g ) . Fish Federal diet B gained ( 51.88 + 2.08g ) of weight while fish Federals diet A showed the least weight addition ( 41.10+ 1.82g ) . Growth rate ( G.R ) was besides highest in fishes fed diet D incorporating 45 % CP ( 1.195+ 0.074 ) while the least value was obtained in fishes fed diet A ( 0.587 + 0.026 ) .

For specific growing rate ( SGR ) , fish fed diet D incorporating 45 % CP besides showed the highest value ( 2.706 + 0.04 ) while the least specific growing rate was obtained in fish fed diet A ( 2.107+0.060 ) . Average growing rate ( MGR ) besides followed the same form with fish fed diet D incorporating 45 % CP demoing highest value ( 22.12 + 1.2 ) while least value was besides obtained in fish fed diet A ( 16.93 + 0.65 ) . Table2 and figure 1 shows the average growing public presentation indices of Clarias gariepinus fed diets incorporating changing rough protein degree.

Table 5: – Average growing public presentation indices of Clarias gariepinus fed with diet incorporating changing rough protein degree






Gain ( g )

41.10 +1.82

51.88 +2.08

63.30 +0.90


Growth Rate


0.741+ 0.03

0.904+ 0.073

1.195+ 0.074


1.950+ 0.101



2.706+ 0.040


16.93+ 0.65

18.51+ 0.21

19.95+ 0.19

22.12+ 1.20

Figure 1: Average growing public presentation indices of Clarias gariepinus fed with diet incorporating changing rough protein degree


Physicochemical parametric quantities measured in this research work were pH, temperature ( T0C ) Ammonia ( NH3 ) and dissolved O ( DOmg/l ) .

In fish tank A, pH ranged between 6.30 – 6.71, temperature ranged from 27.8 – 30.20C, Ammonia ( NH3 ) was 0.00 while dissolved O ranged from 2.2-2.5 mg/l.

In fish tank B, pH ranged between 6.88 – 7.10, temperature ranged from 26.4 – 28.60C, Ammonia ( NH3 ) ranged from 0.030-0.010mg/l while dissolved O ranged from 2.4-2.7 mg/l.

In fish tank C, pH ranged between 6.60 – 7.30, temperature ranged from 27.3 – 29.60C, Ammonia ( NH3 ) ranged from 0.030-0.060mg/l while dissolved O ranged from 2.3-2.5 mg/l.

In fish tank D, pH ranged from 7.01-7.50, temperature ranged from 27.6 – 28.90C, ammonium hydroxide ( NH3 ) ranged from 0.030 – 0.060mg/l

Figure 2: Average Physicochemical Parameters

Chapter FIVE


5.1 Discussion

Experimental diets were compounded utilizing locally available ingredients such as Blood repast, soybean repast, goumdnut repast etc. Blood repast is uniquely rich is lysine holding twice the lysine content of white fish repast and about three times the degree in dehulled soya bean repast ( Crashaw, 1994 ) . Allan ( 1998 ) reported that blood repast in provenders was good utilized by giant perch and Atlantic salmon which were adapted to carnivorous diets. Bureau et Al. ( 199 ) working on evident digestibleness of rendered animate beings protein ingredients for rainbow trout ( Onchorhynchus mykiss ) concluded that

spray- dried blood merchandises were extremely digestible ( Apparent digestibleness coefficient, ADC protein = 97 – 99 % ) . The processing method of the blood merchandise used in this survey was that which was by far the best as reported by Okuneye and Bamiro ( 1990 ) .The drumhead of growing responses of fish fed diets with changing rough protein degree as presented in table 2 showed that all the experimental fish responded to the four experimental diets although some showed singular differences. The consequences show important differences among interventions in the growing indices-weight addition. Mean weight addition additions as protein degree additions from 41.10 +1.82g to a upper limit of 79.62 +1.14g at 45 % petroleum protein degree.

Besides, the recorded addition in growing rate values with addition protein degree are similar to the observations of Faturoti et Al. ( 1986 ) for Clarias lazera fingerlings, Obasa and Faturoti ( 2000 ) for Cryptocoryne walkeri and Erondu et al. , ( 2006 ) for Chrysicthys nigrodigitatus. Specific growing rate follows the same tendency, it increases as protein degree increased to a upper limit of 2.706 + 0.040 when protein was 45 % and decreased to 1.950 + 0.101 when protein degree was 30 % . On the whole C. gariepinus fingerlings fed with 45 % petroleum protein diet performed better than fish fed at low protein flat diets. Protein was more expeditiously utilized by C. gariepinus at 45 % petroleum protein degree than others. This tendency is in tandem with consequences observed by Degani et al. , ( 1989 ) on C. lazera. Furthermore, findings from this survey agrees with Kaushik and Medale, ( 1994 ) that dietetic protein is used by fish for growing, energy and care.

In position of the consequences obtained in this work, it is obvious that C. gariepinus fingerlings performed best when fed on 45 % petroleum protein diet. It is believed that a compounded diet of 45 % petroleum protein would supply foods that will guarantee optimal growing of C. gariepinus in production systems without natural nutrient. The consequences of the present survey hence could supply utile aid to angle husbandmans particularly in the civilization and direction of C. gariepinus.

The average H2O quality parametric quantities values observed for temperature DO and pH within the recommended scope for effectual fish civilization ( Boyd and Lichtkoppler, 1979 ; Viveen et al. , 1985 ) .


In drumhead, protein is really necessary for the growing of C. gariepinus. However, a compounded diet of 45 % petroleum protein utilizing locally available feedstuff like Blood repast, soybean repast Indian potato repast etc. would supply all the indispensable foods required for optimal growing of C. gariepinus in production systems without natural nutrient.