Effects of Ionizing Radiation on the Growth of Corn (Zea mays) Essay

Effectss of Ionizing Radiation on the Growth of Corn (Zea Mayss)1

1A paper submitted in partial fulfilment of the demands in Biology 30 ( Genetics ) Laboratory under Prof. Ana Mariel U. Toledo, 2nd Semester, 2014 – 2015.

Abstraction

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The effects of irradiation on the growing ofZea Maysswere determined by subjecting maize meats into different doses of gamma radiation from Co-60. The premise is that certain doses would advance growing while some would do terminal mutants. In conformity to the hypothesis, lower doses of radiation caused an increased growing rate in maize workss, while higher doses ( 30 krad and above ) were found to be damaging. Higher doses could hold caused nonsensical mutants doing the premature expiration of mRNA interlingual rendition. No other phenotypic sweetenings were observed except for the increased growing rate in 10 krad. Therefore, low doses of radiation would advance growing, whereas higher doses would stunt growing or are damaging.

Introduction

Corn is one of the most in demand nutrient in the universe. Corn is used as an ingredient from staple nutrient of the Americans to the street nutrient of Filipinos. A larger output should so be observed in response to this demand. Plant breeders have devised a scientific manner in order to counterbalance the call for it. Corn can hold an addition in output if mutant is induced.

Mutants are built-in alterations in the familial stuff of an being, which can be transmitted into its progeny. There are two type of mutants, viz. , chromosomal and cistron mutants. The happening of mutants varies greatly as it could be self-generated, or induced by an external factor, such as mutagens ( Mendioro, et al. , 2013 ) . Mutants can either be self-generated, or induced by chemical or physical agents. It is possible to separate chemical mutagens through their manners of action. Some of these cause mutants by mechanisms similar to those which arise spontaneously, while others are more like radiation, a physical agent, in their effects ( Barrion et al. , 2005 ) .

Radiation was the first mutagenic agent known, with its consequence on cistrons was foremost reported in the 1920 ‘s. There are two major types of radiation: EM spectrum and ionizing radiation. Electromagnetic radiation consists of electric and magnetic moving ridges while the ionising radiation consists of X raies and gamma-rays which are energetic plenty to bring forth reactive ions that react with biological molecules ( Al-Salhi et al. , 2005 ) .Ionizing Radiation, at higher doses, may do both mutant and decease of the cell. Cell decease may be of two sorts. First, the cell may no longer execute its map due to internal ionisation cause by the ionizing radiation ; and back, “ generative decease ” or mitotic suppression where the cell can no longer reproduce, but still performs its other maps ( Heather, 2000 ) . This could be exhibited by high mortality rate on the seeds and slow growing rate on the irradiated seeds. Mutants by radiation in workss are easy induced at the seed phase, before the workss begin to develop protective mechanisms as they grow ( Quastler, 1950 ) . Hence, immature workss are susceptible to radiations than older works.

In the experiment, maize seeds were used to find and verify the consequence of radiations on workss peculiarly on the seeds and shooting shoots. Corn orZea Maysshold 10 chromosomes. The seeds were subjected to different grades of radiation due to cobalt. Cobalt is a nonradioactive metal found in nature from which radioactive isotopes can be produced by additive gas pedals and atomic reactors ( Heather, F. 2000 ) . As stated earlier, ionising radiations may do mutants at higher doses. Therefore, the higher the grade of ionising radiation in the maize seed, the higher the chance that mutant will happen. This experiment was designed to find the effects of different grade of radiation in maize seeds.

The survey aimed to find the consequence of increasing strengths of radiation on works growing in maize and to verify that the sum of harm in the cell is related to the dosage of radiation it receives. The specific aims were:

1. To detect the effects of different doses of radiation on works growing in footings of tallness and % sprouting ; and

2. To explicate the possible mechanisms behind the observe consequence of radiation on works growing.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

To quantify the effects of different grades of radiation on works peculiarly on the maize, ten seeds were subjected in each grade of radiation step by kilorad: 50kr, 30kr and 10kr. The seeds were planted and were allowed to turn for 26 yearss on the secret plan prepared at the dorsum of the Institute of Biological Sciences. A control set –up was besides prepared and planted. The secret plans were watered and monitored every other twenty-four hours to guarantee equal H2O supply. The tallness of the germinated seeds, if present was recorded on the scheduled twenty-four hours. To decently measure the consequence of radiation on the growing of the maize, these expressions were used:

The consequences from the calculations were so interpreted.

Seeds that did non shoot were considered dead. Datas were so recorded and analyzed in Table 1 and interpreted in Figure 1.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

After the 21 yearss period of observation on the irradiated maize seeds, informations gathered were summarized and analyzed on the undermentioned figures and tabular arraies. The observations measured were the tallness of the shoots nowadays in each grade of radiation each twenty-four hours.

Table 1. Average tallness of maize workss ( centimeter ) .

Dates of Observations

Control

10 krad

30 krad

50 krad

Height ( centimeter )

N

Height ( centimeter )

N

Height ( centimeter )

N

Height ( centimeter )

N

20-March

0

0

0

0

23-March

6.9

9

6.4

9

2.1

5

1.7

5

25-March

7.3

9

10.1

9

27-March

22.7

9

21.6

9

9.1

4

2.0

2

30-March

23.5

9

30.1

9

9.1

4

0.9

2

1-April

28.9

9

34.2

9

10.5

4

0

0

6-April

39.2

9

43.9

9

13.8

8

0

0

8-April

48.0

9

50.5

9

17.1

7

0

0

10-April

54.3

9

62.1

9

19.5

8

0

0

13-April

4.9

2

15-April

4.9

2

17-April

4.9

2

20-April

96.3

8

105.4

9

37.4

3

0

0

22-April

97.4

9

108.3

9

55.5

2

0

0

24-April

0

0

27-April

114.8

8

120.5

9

59.5

2

0

0

29-April

116.5

8

122.8

9

62.0

2

0

0

4-May

122.4

8

129.3

9

66.8

2

0

0

7-May

120.0

8

126.4

9

68.5

2

0

0

8-May

123.3

8

131.1

9

69.0

2

0

0

11-May

124.1

8

133.9

9

69.0

2

0

0

*Values were obtained utilizing the expression: entire tallness of plants/ entire no. of workss.

It is discernible that as the sum of radiation addition, the fewer are the workss that germinate except for the 10 kilorad radiation. Associated with it is the works height which decreases besides as the sum of radiation additions besides with the exclusion of 10 kilorad radiation which showed a great addition in tallness.

The average tallness for the control set-up was 124.1 centimeter. The average tallness for the workss which were subjected to 10 kilorad of radiation is 133.9 centimeter. The workss under the 30 kilorad intervention merely reached a average tallness of 69.00 centimeter. On the other manus, workss under the 50 kilorad intervention had a average tallness of merely 4.9 centimeter. In comparing, the intervention under 10 kilorad radiation had the most figure of subsisters and a big value for the average tallness versus to the workss that received the upper limit radiation which had a little value for the average tallness and nothing subsisters.

Figure 2. A line graph comparing the growing rates ofZea Mayssirradiated with different doses of gamma beams.

The consequences were in conformity to the growing rate as the maize workss exposed 10 krad of radiation were the tallest. This is followed by the controlled, with really minimum difference. The highs of the maize workss exposed to 30 and 50 krad of radiation, on the other manus, were badly stunted. The theory is that the growing of workss subjected to low doses of radiation, 10 krad, exhibited enhanced growing as their growing was stimulated by changing the hormonal signaling web of the plants’ cells. It might besides be due to the increased anti-oxidative capacity of the cells, which renders the emphasiss ( inconsistent visible radiation strength and temperature ) that could stunt growing useless ( Minisi, et al. , 2013 ) .

Table 2. Germination rate ofZea Maysssubjected to different dose of radiation.

Treatment

No. of seeds planted

No. of seeds germinated

Germination Success Rate

Control

20

9

45 %

10 kilorad

20

9

45 %

30 kilorad

20

5

25 %

50 kilorad

20

5

25 %

The control group besides had a concluding 45 % sprouting and mean tallness of 124.1 centimeter as shown in Table 1. The presence of the control group in the experiment assures that external factors such as sum of sunshine, H2O, pH of the medium would be negligible in measuring both the % sprouting and length of tallness in every set-up. One more of import facet to look into is the survival rate. Table 3 shows the information for survival rate.

Table 3. Computed survival rate ofZea Maysssubjected to Cobalt-60 radiation.

Treatment

Highest figure of subsisters

No. of seeds at the last twenty-four hours

Survival Rate

Control

9

8

88.9 %

10 kilorad

9

9

100.0 %

30 kilorad

8

2

25 %

50 kilorad

5

0

0 %

The calculations Table 3 suggest that a works or harvest devoid of radiation, which induces mutant, is advantageous to its growing. The 10 krad set-up had the highest survival rate of 100.0 % so followed by the control set-up which is 88.9 % . The 30 kilorad had a survival rate of 25 % and 50 kilorad intervention ( 0 % ) did non last until the last twenty-four hours.

The theory for the decease and stunted growing of maize workss is that increased doses of radiation causes the cell rhythm to collar at the G2 stage doing a decreased growing among the maize workss. The eventual decease of the said workss can be attributed to amendss in the maize plants’ familial stuff ( Minisi, et al. , 2013 ) . The possible sorts of cistron mutants that can do decease are nonsensical mutants and frameshift mutants ( frameshift mutants could do alterations in the reading frame of the familial stuff ensuing to nonsense mutants ) . These sorts of mutants could do decease as certain codons are transformed into stop codons ensuing the expiration of mRNA interlingual rendition ( Ramirez, Mendioro and Laude, 2013 ) .

Decision

The consequence of changing doses of radiation on the growing of maize (Zea Mayss) was determined by subjecting maize meats into 3 different doses of radiation from gamma beams emitted during the decay of Co-60. For 21 yearss, the workss were observed thrice a hebdomad and the % sprouting, % endurance, mean works tallness and noteworthy phenotypic alterations were noted.

The informations obtained from the experiment showed that a minimum dose of radiation, 10 krad, causes an addition in the growing rate of maize, whereas greater doses such as 30 and 50 krad are damaging. The decease of the maize workss in the higher doses could hold been caused by bunk and frameshift mutants, although, it would necessitate genotypic analysis to corroborate this. There was besides no ascertained sweetening in the phenotypic traits among the maize workss in all doses of radiation with the exclusion of the works tallness, where the maize workss from the 10 krad secret plan had a greater concluding tallness, 133.9 centimeter, followed by the controlled, 124.1 centimeter. The maize workss subjected to higher doses were observed to hold a badly scrawny growing, as the concluding highs from the 30 and 50 krad secret plans were 69.0 and 4.9 centimeter, severally.

In this experiment, some of the informations gathered could hold been erroneous because different people did the measurings and there were losing information. In future reproductions, it would be recommended to hold merely a individual individual making the measurings. If the old isn’t possible, the people who will take the measurings must hold a common understanding on how they would be executing the measurings.

LITERATURE CITED

Al-Salhi, M. , M.M. Ghannam, M.S. Al-Ayed, S.U. El-Kameesy and S. Roshdy. 2004. Consequence of gamma-irradiation on the biophysical and morphological belongingss of maize. Nahrung. , 48: 95-98.

Barrion, A.A. , Bebbing, N.N. , Diaz, M. , Laude, R.P. , Ramirez, D.A. , and Villafuerte, L.S. 2005. Geneticss: A Laboratory Manual. 12th erectile dysfunction. San Pablo City, Laguna. 7 Lakes Printing Press. 101 P.

Heather, F. 2000. Effectss of Radiation on the Germination and Growth of Seeds. Canada

Mendioro, et al. , 2013. Genetics A Laboratory Manual. 13Thursdayalteration. San Pablo, Philippines: 7 lakes Printing Press.pp. 107-111.

Minisi, et Al. 2013. Effectss of Gamma Radiation on Germination, Growth Characteristics and Morphological Variations ofMolucellalaevisL. Egypt: IDOSI Publications. pp. 696-704.

Ramirez, D. , M.S. Mendioro and R.P. Laude. 2013. Lectures in Genetics. 10Thursdayerectile dysfunction. San Pablo, Philippines: 7 lakes Printing Press.pp. 171-174.

Quastler, H. and Baer, M. 1950. Inhibition of works growing by irradiation. Retrieved Febuary 07, 2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cancerreasearch.com