English universe.String theory holds out the promise

English PERIOD 8 Mr. SpencerString theoryThe ‘Wild West’ of Physics___By Nawaf Al-RubaieINTRODUCTIONImagine that we were able to control space, or control time. The different things we would be able to accomplish would be remarkable. It might even be possible to go from the Victorian times, to the ancient egyptian times and back to the present in an instant. Now everyone thinks that these kind of trips might be impossible; and it probably is. However in the last few years our ideas about the true nature of space and time have been going through some changes. And the things that used to seem like science fiction are looking not so far fetched, This is all due to a monumental revolution in physics, and its called string theory. This theory offers a whole new perspective on the inner workings of the universe.String theory holds out the promise that we can really understand questions of why the universe is the way it is at the most fundamental level. It is an area of theoretical physics that is so radically different than anything ever seen before. This radical new theory starts with a simple premise that everything in the universe including buildings walls phones and even forces such as electricity and gravity are made from incredibly tiny, vibrating strands of energy called strings and as small as they are strings are changing everything we thought we knew about the universe especially our ideas about the nature of space.How it works.To see how, let’s first shrink all of space to a more manageable size. Imagine that the whole universe consisted of nothing more than jabriya, so now just a small part of Kuwait makes up the entire fabric of space. And let’s imagine that i am the CEO of a billion dollar company and because time is money i need to find the quickest route from upper Jabriya to my offices in lower Jabriya. Now obviously the shortest distance between two points is a straight line; however, even when there is no traffic it will still take a sum amount of time to arrive at my destination. By going faster it is possible to reduce the travel time. But because nothing can go the speed of light there is a definite limit to how much time we can cut from our journey.This universe fits with an old classic vision of space, basically a flat grid that is static and unchanging. But when Albert Einstein looked at the fabric of space; he saw something completely different. He said that space wasn’t static and could warp and stretch and there can even be unusual structures of space, called wormhole. A wormhole is a bridge or a tunnel, that can link different regions of space. In effect a cosmic shortcut! Sadly there is a hitch. To create a wormhole you have to rip or tear a hole in the fabric of space. Now the question is can the fabric of space really rip? Can this first step to creating a wormhole actually happen.By imagining a donut and a coffee it is easy to explain weather the fabric of space can tear or not. Now imagine space is shaped like that donut, you might think that it is very different to a region of space shaped like a coffee mug. But technically the shape of the coffee mug and the donut are the same! Just a little disguised. Now the donut and the coffee mug both have one whole, in the donut it’s in the middle. In the coffee cup it’s in the handle. That means we can change the shape of a donut into a coffee mug and vice versa without having to rip or tear the dough at all. But suppose you want to change the shape of this donut into a very different shape. A shape with no holes. The only way to do that is to tear the donut by eating it! And then reshape it. Into a muffin. Unfortunately according to Einstein’s laws, this is impossible, they say that space can stretch and warp but it cannot rip.Wormholes might exist somewhere fully formed but you cannot rip space to create a new one over Jabriya or anywhere else. In other words I can’t take a wormhole to school. But now string theory is giving us a whole new perspective on space and could potentially prove einstein wrong.If we could shrink down to a millionth of a billionth of our size we would enter the world of quantum mechanics, the laws that portray how atoms behave and act. In this area the fabric of space is random. There could be rips and tears but what causes those rips to cause a cosmic catastrophe? This is where strings come in, strings calm the chaos. And as a single strings floats through space it leaves a tube behind it. These tubes act as bubbles that surrounds the tears thus preventing that cosmic catastrophe. Strings actually make it possible for strings to rip.This means that space is a lot more dynamic than what albert einstein thought. Does that mean that creating a wormhole is possible. Thats a long-shot ;however this theory is already showing us how the universe is much stranger than we thought it could ever be.What does string theory show.String theory shows that we are surrounded by hidden dimensions. People that have claimed that there are other dimensions have been labeled as mad men! Well string theory predicts it. We live on a membrane, a 3D membrane, that floats inside higher dimensional space. There could be worlds right next to us but be completely invisible.Everything in the universe should be explained by one single equation, one master equation. If we can find that equation on how the universe works in both time and space, then and only then will we finally know how the universe really works. What we need is a theory that can cope with the miniscule to the massive, one that embraces both quantum mechanics and general relativity.General relativity covers the most familiar if the forces, gravity. However quantum mechanics describes three other forces: the strong nuclear force-that is responsible for gluing protons and neutrons together inside atoms. Electromagnetism. And the weak nuclear force that is responsible for radioactive decay. Everything no matter what is due to these four forces interacting with matter.For centuries, scientists have pictured the fundamental ingredients of nature. Atoms and the smaller particles inside them have been pictured as tiny spheres. But string theory claims that at the heart of every bit of matter is a tiny vibrating strand of energy, called a string. And now scientists think these strings are the key to linking general relativity to the quantum world. How was it discoveredString theory was discovered through a number of insights dating back to the late 1960’s; it was initially thought of as a theory that would explain the nuclear force, or the strong force. The four fundamental forces in physics are; gravitation, electromagnetism, the strong force and the weak force. The strong/nuclear force is the most powerful of them all. The strong force is not something for daily interactions; however it is the force that hold atoms together. It does so in two ways, it hold the nucleus of the atoms and keeps the protons and neutrons from bursting apart. The second way demonstrates the use of color force. Protons and neutrons are both particle known as a hadron; and all hadrons are made of even smaller particles called quarks. These quarks are the fundamental components of matter, by fundamental I mean that it cannot be broken down any smaller particles. Quarks and leptons that include electrons are both the most basic constituents of matter. Now among their many traits quarks have a property called “color”, not the green, blue, red etc… colors that you are thinking about simply because you can’t see quarks. But colors are how physicists describe the three different states that quarks can exist in; one is called “red” one is called “blue” and one is called “green”. Quarks are given these colors because all hadrons must be (naturally) colorless. Meaning that the different components of the quarks have to cancel each other out. Now given that protons and neutrons are each made of three quarks, this means that protons and neutrons can contain one quark of a color at the any moment. And just to keep things extremely annoying, quarks are constantly changing colors.Back to the point it was thought that quarks would be held inside protons and neutrons by a string that would bind them together and that was the initial role of string theory Too quickly the theory was tossed away and failed as a physical concept; however this was one of the rare instances that old theories were brought back to answer a bigger question. People realized that string theory shouldn’t just be used to describe the nuclear force it should be used to describe all matter. However we are still not able to test this theory, it is simply too complex but there is nothing to deny that it IS the theory of …. EVERYTHING.(CNSNews.com) — Dr. Michio Kaku, a theoretical physicist at the City College of New York and co-founder of String Field Theory, says theoretical particles known as “primitive semi-radius tachyons” are physical evidence that the universe was created by a higher intelligence  BibliographyAdams, Steve. A theory of everything.Arkani-Hamed, Nima, and others. The universe’s unseen dimensions.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/String_theory