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Evelyn DinhMeyer–3AP U.S. HistoryJanuary 29, 2018Federal Government Changes Under Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson (1901-1921) As the introduction of industrialization rapidly increase all over America, Progressivism began to make an appearance as well, presenting social and political movements. The Progressive Era was a time of social activism and political reforms, terminating problems caused by factors such as corrupted government, industrialization, and/or immigration. The role of federal government had different insights when held under the administration of two different presidents, affecting the lives of American citizens in such ways. During the days of Abraham Lincoln’s presidency, President Lincoln made it a priority to complete the Transcontinental Railroad. He was well aware of the advantageous economic and social effects such a system would have on the United States. With the completed work of the Transcontinental Railroad, rail lines and new towns were built around them. This negatively impacted the environment, cutting through the pristine grazing grasslands of the buffalos. Buffalos began to die at an increasingly fast scale. In two decades, the great bison was nearly in extinction. Roosevelt was a huge conservationist. Many U.S. citizens considered natural resources as limitless, but Theodore Roosevelt needed to show people the reality that these sources that are allowing them to thrive are not inexhaustible. John Muir, a preservationist, was concerned of the destructions of lands, especially in western areas. Muir invited Theodore Roosevelt to camp in Yosemite National Park to show him how he needed to protect the environment and natural resources that mankind are destroying (Document 2). During Roosevelt’s presidency, his passion for nature allowed him to set aside nearly 230 million acres under federal protection for natural forests, reserves, and wildlife refuges. This amount of land is equivalent to the entire Eastern Seaboard from Maine to Florida as well as being fives times as much land as all of the previous presidents reserved combined. Theodore Roosevelt was the first president to put great actions into protecting the lands that are now enjoyed by many U.S. citizens and tourists. President Thomas Woodrow Wilson wanted to expand/increase competition and be fair to the especially smaller companies. Wilson’s domestic policy, New Freedom, emphasized business competitions and small government, as well as the promotion of tariff and antitrust modifications.  His first term as President of the United States would be dedicated to pushing domestic programs. The Federal Trade Commission would prevent unfair business practices and investigate any complaints of a corporations. He lowered tariffs as well to reduce the amount of money taken in by the federal government. President Wilson pushed the Underwood-Simmons Act through Congress, achieving the most significant reduction rate since the Civil War. Wilson reduced the average tariff rate from 41% to 29%, the largest tariff drop in approximately fifty years. During Woodrow Wilson’s presidency, there was the ratification of the 16th Amendment in 1913. The 16th Amendment gave Congress the power to tax income. Wilson argued that high tariffs created monopolies and hurt consumers, passing the Sherman Antitrust Act. The Sherman Antitrust Act was the first Federal Act that outlawed monopolistic businesses and their practices. To ensure the Sherman Antitrust Act, U.S. Congress passed the Clayton Antitrust Act, which was against price discrimination, price fixing, unfair business practices, etc. The large corporation was negatively affected by President Woodrow Wilson’s actions. The annual issued reports made sure the industries in the interstate and foreign trade are advised and regulated (Document 4). Wilson did not like how large corporations and companies were unfair to the small businesses, proposing new antitrust law that did not allow the company to set prices that would reduce competition nor create monopoly. President Wilson gave the power to unions of the ability to organize and protect workers as well as protecting labor unions from being charged with antitrust violations. The expansion of the government’s roles in the economy was due to the help of Wilson’s New Deal. It gave the power to regulate any areas of commerce as well as creating new programs such as social security and the aid of the poor. Approximately 147,000 mine workers from anthracite coal fields of Pennsylvania went on strike in 1902. This event is also known as The Great Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902. The Depression of 1893 caused many workplaces to force down wages. Miners lived in terrible conditions with the little pay they had. Furious of how little money they receive for the long hours they work, the miners threatened a coal famine and demanded for more pay and shorter hours. President Roosevelt saw this as  a huge concern since coal was the main source of heating fuel, especially in many Eastern cities. Theodore Roosevelt attempted to negotiate with the anthracite miners and coal field operators in a meeting at the White House, but failed to do so. Roosevelt needed to do whatever was necessary to prevent any interference with the resumption of work. The workers agreed to Roosevelt in the end after being threatened to declare national emergency and send in the U.S. army/troops to take over the coalfields. The Coal Strike ended on October 23, 1902 along with a 10% wage increase and a nine-hour workday. Theodore Roosevelt wanted the government to supervise the employers and business to ensure workers are not harmed or injured. The United States Department of Commerce and Labor was created to improve working conditions as well as to develop the welfare of those who work. He wanted there to be advanced opportunities for profitable employment. President Roosevelt believed that the government should serve as a reform for the people as well as having the responsibility to regulate business owners to ensure their actions will not negatively affect the general public (Document 1). This was the first time where a President used federal troops to help labor instead of break it. It was the beginning of new progressive future, using the federal government to improve the standard of living for all Americans. Bitterness was still present between the North and the South where many white American citizens still believed that they were the most superior race compared to the others. They also still believed how it was inappropriate for whites and blacks to interact socially as well. Racial tensions increased and expanded as an increasing population of immigrants migrated to the United States. On October 16, 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt invited Booker T. Washington, an African-American educator and spokesperson, to the White House to receive some advice on the cabinet appointments. Roosevelt suspected that the meeting would be longer than intended and would interfere with a family dinner booked with an old visiting friend. Although he was hesitant at first, he questioned if this was the right decision due to Washington being a colored man (Document 3). Washington was hesitant as well when accepting the invitation, but he believed it was a landmark moment and accepted the dinner invite on behalf of his race. This meeting implied social equality and not just a non business-related gathering, causing an uproar in the South, backlashes, and headlines all over the country. This meeting with Booker T. Washington could have possibly negatively influenced President Roosevelt’s relationship with any Southern Congressmen for the remainder of his presidency term. Blacks, however, gave high remarks for honoring one of their greatest leaders as well as taking the criticism well. Theodore Roosevelt strictly believed that all men are created equal as stated in the Declaration of Independence. Astonished by the backlashes and harsh, bitter criticisms he received, Theodore argued for racial equality. He proposed a solution to this racial situation in 1905 to improve social and economic equality and that there should be a gradual adjustment towards the attitudes of other races. There was a huge tremendous act of courage for Theodore Roosevelt inviting the first black person into the White House, even when they both knew the negligent criticisms they both would received. President Theodore Roosevelt’s second reelection allowed him to discuss the country’s current state of race problems and his proposition to change the attitude and hatred towards African-Americans along with other races viewed as “inferior” to the white race. President Theodore Roosevelt was not the first president to receive backlashes for his involvement with the black races and trying to improve their relations. President Woodrow Wilson was criticized by W.E.B. DuBois for being racist and worsen their civil rights rather than improving their equality and relationships. During the Great Migration, African Americans immigrated from the agricultural lands of the South to the industrial centers of the North. They wanted a better living and education for their families as well as themselves. Causes for the migration was due to the decrease in cotton prices, the lack of workers in the North, the overpowering KKK, and the increase manufacturing due to the War. Blacks began to have a place in the North as well as an improved, better living. When Woodrow Wilson became the president of the United States, African Americans welcomed him with open arms but were worried of the actions and laws aimed towards their race. During President Wilson’s first term, the House passed a law to make racial intermarriage a felony on the District of Columbia. There was an order of segregation of offices, removing blacks from their position in the office. During the Fall of 1913, Federal offices begun separating workers by race along with numerous other workplaces that were being publicized about it. Woodrow Wilson campaigned his New Freedom where he promised to expand and increase the competition and fair labor practices, which was hypocritical of him to say. Woodrow Wilson  explained to the people that he segregated the blacks from the whites as a beneficial factor in the society and economy. Wilson stated how his cabinet officers “were seeking, not to put the Negro employees at a disadvantage but…to make arrangements which would prevent any kind of friction between the white employees and the Negro employees” (Document 7).  W.E.B. DuBois fought for the civil rights for black people as well as fighting against economic discrimination. Wilson’s statement was horrifying shocking and disgusting. Many disagreed that this was not a beneficial act, but rather quite a humiliating one that degrades the black worker. Not only was President Woodrow Wilson racist and discriminating to those of the African-Americans/black race, but he opposed those fighting for the women’s suffrage. Women’s contribution to society were commonly limited and controlled by men. They were degraded and limited of their freedom of speech, rights, and liberties. Women are usually stereotyped as only having the capability to take care of their husband when home from work as well as having the responsibility to raise their children and clean their households. Women were viewed as not as successful compared to men, but when the North became more industrialized, companies are in need of more workers. Women were hired into factory jobs, more commonly textile factories. This change gave them the courage to demand rights and fight for their equality. Although women urged and fought for their voting rights and being able to hold office, President Woodrow Wilson would oppose to that and not take any actions to improve women’s role in society. He was in fact repelled by militant suffragists outside his gates to the White House. He viewed their protesting as insulting, unfeminine, and unpatriotic. Wilson even charged some women with obstructing traffic, as well as having officers give them suffering beatings, forced feeding, unsanitary conditions, etc. (Document 5). One of the leading women activist, Carrie Chapman Catt, embraced war as an opportunity for women to earn voting rights through their patriotic actions. Eventually, their protests finally forced Wilson to address the Senate, speaking out in favor of the suffrage. He passed the 19th amendment, which established that no citizen can be denied the right to vote on account of sex/gender. Although the Senate rejected the women’s suffrage by two votes, the 19th amendment would be passed by Congress on June 4, 1919 and ratified August 18, 1920. The Women Suffrage in the early 1900s greatly impact women’s role in society today as well as drastically changing. Although there is still a presence of inequality, women as well as men have been able to end the discrimination of gender. Every U.S. citizen are allowed to vote as well as being able to hold office. There is a annual Women’s March held in known cities, such as Chicago, Washington D.C., etc. Although President Roosevelt and Wilson dealt with many hardships, the changes in the federal government helped modify today’s government.