Final Exam Guide Essay

Question 1: How would you specify successful leading? What criterion do you use when measuring leading success? Is it possible to foretell success based on organisational civilizations or other factors? Provide examples to back up your reply.


Successful leading is the ability to impart and organize the energy of the group to achieve the coveted ends of the concern. It is the capacity to actuate and animate followings to travel beyond the distance of their sensed restrictions. to lift to the challenges of the undertaking at manus. and to seek out advanced and fresh solutions. In a word. success leading is authorising. As Eleanor Roosevelt one time said. “A good leader inspires people to hold assurance in the leader ; a great leader inspires people to hold assurance in themselves. ” A successful leading can be evaluated by the undermentioned criterions: a ) Example – A successful leader leads by illustration. which is the key to reliable leading. This is demonstrated by working difficult. doing hard determinations. taking hazards. and personal forfeits. B ) Integrity – There are no cutoffs to success. A successful leader is honest. reliable and uncompromising on his or her work and concern moralss.

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degree Celsiuss ) Solid ends – A successful leader has solid ends and way. which are communicated to the squad. The leader makes the squad identify and take ownership of the business’s ends in order to actuate them to accomplish these ends. vitamin D ) Knowledge – A leader is equipped with cognition and accomplishments necessary for the endeavor. The leader leverages the team’s best opportunity of success by cognizing and understanding the obstructions. competition and hazards present in an enterprise. vitamin E ) Autonomous – A successful leader provides for liberty by authorising the members to believe. innovate and have the solution to a job. degree Fahrenheit ) High Expectations – A successful leader expects a high degree of excellence from the squad. Expectations create consequences ; people want to proud of their work. However. high outlook does non intend flawlessness. Rather. it is larning through experience and mistakes. and being accountable for one’s errors.

g ) Humility – A successful leader knows the value of teamwork and gives recognition where it is due. Leadership is non about personalities ; it is about directing the group’s attempts toward the completion of an enterprise. H ) Execution – A successful leader has the subject to acquire things done. He or she can bridge the spread between theory and existent executing of a program. Nagavara Ramarao Narayana Murthy is an Indian man of affairs and co-founder of Infosys. which was founded in 1981. Mr. Murthy served as CEO of Infosys from 1982 to 2002. and as president from 2002 to 2011.

He stepped down from the board in 2011. and became Chairman Emeritus. Mr. Murthy embodies the ideals of a successful leading. He is a top leader. an establishment builder. and an IT fable. He empowered his executives. direction squad and workers. He encouraged and nurtured leading qualities in the organisation through mentoring and preparation. He institutionalized ethical values of honestness and unity throughout the organisation. Question 2: What methods exist to develop leaders in an organisation? What methods does your organisation usage? Why? Have any methods been counterproductive? In what ways? Solution:

There are assorted attacks to leading development in an organisation that will be briefly describes as follows: 1 ) Formal Development Programs – In its basic format. a formal plan consists of a schoolroom seminar covering basic theories and rules of leading. It can be in the signifier of a trim development plan fitted to function the demands of the specific organisation. It can besides be open-enrollment plans offered by private and academic establishments. 2 ) 3600 Feedback – This is besides known as a multi-source feedback. and a multi-rater feedback. This method involves consistently roll uping appraisals of a person’s public presentation from different beginnings. which typically consists of supervisors. equals. subsidiaries. clients. and other stakeholders. 3 ) Executive Coaching – This method is defined as a practical. goal-oriented signifier of personal and one-on-one acquisition. Coaching is normally used to better single public presentation. heighten a calling. or work through organisational issues.

4 ) Job Assignments – This method works under the premise that experience is the best instructor. This method trains manque leaders in an organisation by giving them a assortment of occupation assignments that will expose them to different work environments ; hence. it allows them to accommodate. and go better strategic minds. 5 ) Mentoring – Mentoring plans typically pair a senior and a junior director. but partner offing can besides happen between equals. Mentoring involves reding and go throughing on lessons learned from the senior to the junior spouse. 6 ) Networking – Some organisations include development activities designed to further broader single webs for better connexion with spouses in a planetary community. Leaderships are expected to cognize non merely the in and out of the organisation. but besides know who in footings of problem-solving resources. 7 ) Contemplation – Introspection and contemplation can further self-understanding and understanding from lessons learned from experience. In leading development. contemplation can be used to bring out a person’s concealed ends. endowments. and values. every bit good as their impact on a person’s work.

8 ) Action Learning – This is a project-based acquisition method characterized by a uninterrupted procedure of acquisition and contemplation. aided by co-workers. and with an accent on acquiring things done. This method connects single development to the procedure of assisting organisations respond to major concern jobs. 9 ) Outdoor Challenges – This is a team-building experience in an outdoor or wilderness scene. designed to get the better of risk-taking frights. and to advance teamwork and leading accomplishments. Our organisation uses formal plans to develop leaders. Acknowledging that a classroom-based acquisition. while easy and flexible. is limited in the existent transportation of competences. the formal plan serves as a shell under which assorted development methods are incorporated.

Hence. the formal plan is structured by uniting theoretical acquisition and problem-based acquisition. Then. a 360-degree feedback is given to each participant. which serves as a footing for an in-depth contemplation. For most people. the 360-degree feedback is hard to manage for several grounds. The primary ground is an built-in opposition to alter. Another ground is the overpowering sum of informations. which can be complex. inconsistent. and hard to construe and interpret into an action or behaviour that can rectify a given job. Mere cognition and credence of one’s developmental demands are non plenty to convey about alteration. There is a demand for follow-up counsel and support. That is why participants are besides given short-run coaching to place specific countries of concern and how to decide these concerns.

Question 3: In The Art and Science of Leadership. Nahavandi writes about the dark side of power. Supply an illustration. What organisational factors contributed to the leader’s behaviour? What were effects of the behaviour? Solution:

Nahavandi cites corruptness as the dark side of power. An illustration of a dirt that shocked the corporate universe was the instance of the German technology giant Siemens in 2006. A regulative probe revealed that 100s of employees. spearheaded by Siemens’ top executives. had been syphoning 1000000s of Euros into fake trades to pay monolithic payoffs to authorities functionaries and concern contacts to win contracts in Russia and Nigeria. A test justice described the dirt as a blazing neglect of concern moralss and a systematic pattern of organized irresponsibleness that was implicitly condoned by direction.

The dirt resulted to the going of Siemens top executives. including so CEO Klaus Kleinfield. who was subsequently convicted of corruptness. placed on probation for 2 old ages. and fined 160. 000 Euro for his complicity. Hans-Werner Hartmann. who was the accounting caput in the company’s telecommunications arm. was besides placed on probation for 18 months and fined 40. 000 Euro. The dirt cost Siemens around 2. 5 billion Euro to pay for mulcts. reparations and amendss. The house was besides barred from traffics with certain clients. The cost to Siemens’ employees. who had to digest intense public examination and shame. is hard to quantify.

Organizational factors that contributed to a civilization of graft within Siemens were identified as follows: an aggressive growing scheme that compelled directors to fall back to corrupt in order to run into public presentation marks ; a complex and matrix-like organisational construction that allowed divisions to run independently. with no established cheques and balances ; hapless accounting procedures ;

a corporate civilization openly tolerant of payoffs.
It should be noted that payoffs were tax-deductible. and were the norms. non the exclusions. in German concern pattern at that clip.

Question 4: What obstacles exist for leaders involved in participatory direction? What methods may a leader employ to get the better of these obstructions?

Participative direction. besides known as employee engagement and authorization. encourages the engagement of all the organization’s stakeholders in the analysis of jobs. development of schemes. and execution of solutions. While participative direction seems like a Utopian ideal. leaders face many obstructions in its effectual execution.

One obstruction is promoting the engagement of employees in the managerial procedure of planning and doing determinations. Employees may non to the full take part due to miss of competences. deficiency of assurance. and fright of rejection. Another ground is the employee’s deficiency of trust that his or her parts will be valued. The presence of tenseness and competition among employees are besides barriers to effectual communicating. and ability to work together. Leaderships can turn to these issues by being sincere in their desire to implement participative direction. Leaderships should beef up communicating within the workplace. and initiate team-building activities to beef up bonds between equals. and between employees and direction. Training plans should besides be initiated to develop employees’ competences. leading accomplishments and assurance.

Once employees are to the full committed to prosecute in participative direction. other obstructions arise. which includes the elaboration of the complexness of the organization’s activities and the turning volume of information that managerial determinations are based on. These can take to trouble in acquiring things done. and slow response clip to issues that need fast reactions and actions. Leaderships can non work out these obstructions entirely ; these require the conjunct attempt of the full organisation.

However. leaders can take the lead in deputing duties to cut down the hierarchal degrees in the organisation. and to decentralized authorization so that the organisation can react to issues rapidly and expeditiously. Leaderships can besides set up quality circles. which are composed of about 8 to 10 employees along with the supervisor who portion countries of duty among themselves. These circles can run into on a regular basis to discourse jobs in their several countries and insight for solutions. which they can subsequently show to the full organisation as a to the full developed action program. In this manner. the complexness of participative direction is simplified.

Another obstruction to participative direction concerns security issues. It is harder to guarantee confidential information corsets within the organisation when more people are involved in managerial determinations. This confidential information can include patents. and merchandise research and development. Leaderships can turn to this obstruction by actuating employees to be accountable for their actions and to remain committed to the company by valuing their parts. Question 5: What are some grounds employees and directors resist alteration? As a leader. what methods would you utilize to assist employees and directors adapt to alter? Solution:

Adaptability to alter is a requirement to go successful in the modern universe characterized by increasing planetary consciousness and fast turnover of engineering. Organizations must react to alter and be willing to alter to retain their competitory border and relevancy. However. implementing organisational alterations are dashing for leaders. non least because most employees and directors resist alteration. The common grounds why employees resist alteration are the undermentioned: alteration promotes fear. insecurity and uncertainness.

difference in perceptual experience and deficiency of apprehension.
reaction against the manner alteration is presented.
cynicism and deficiency of trust.
and menaces to vested involvement.

In order to get the better of opposition to alter. leaders can affect workers in the alteration procedure by openly pass oning about the demand for alteration. supplying audience to relieve employees’ frights. and being sensitive to employees’ concerns. In order to implement alteration. leaders must make up one’s mind on the method they will utilize to get the better of opposition to alter. and modify behaviour. The three-step attack is an illustration of such a method ; it is characterized by three basic phases: unfreezing. altering. and refreezing. 1 ) Unfreezing: Most people prefer to keep the position quo. which is associated with stableness. instead than facing the demand for alteration. The starting phase. hence. of a alteration procedure must affect dissolving old behaviours. procedures. and constructions.

This phase develops an consciousness of the demand for alteration. and the forces that supports and resists change. Awareness is facilitated with one-on-one treatments. presentations to groups. memos. studies. company newssheet. seminars. and presentations. These activities are designed to educate employees about the lacks of the current set-up and the benefits of the replacing. 2 ) Changing: This phase focuses on larning new behaviours. and implementing the alteration. Change is facilitated when employees become uncomfortable with the identified lacks of the old system. and are presented with new behaviours. function theoretical accounts. and support constructions. 3 ) Refreezing: This phase focuses on reenforcing new behaviours. normally done by positive consequences. public acknowledgment. and wagess.