Genes in the structure of DNA, thereby

Genes
are the basic units of inheritance are responsible for the transmission of
characters from parents to off springs. They carry instructions and make
proteins by holding the DNA (central dogma of genetics). Genes are also
responsible in making the molecules to move from one place to another in a
cell, toxin breakdown and detoxification of these toxin and also have the
maintenance function of the cell. Sometimes sudden or abrupt changes occur in
the structure of DNA, thereby changing its structure known as mutation. Due to
mutation, protein do not work in a proper way leading to medical condition
known as genetic disorder. Regarding the medical condition, genetic disorders
are of three types. Single-gene disorders are those in which the mutation
affects only the single gene and as a result of this, the proteins in which the
genes code for is either missing or their structure is altered (abnormal
functioning). ADA Deficiency, cystic Fibrosis, MSUD and sickle cell anemia are
the quoted examples of single gene disorders. Chromosomal disorders are those
in which either the chromosomes are missing or their structure have been changed.
Any abnormality (Deletion, inversion and translocation) in the chromosome
depends on which chromosome is affected. The most common mistake that is the
cause of chromosomal aberrations occurs during the cell division (mitosis and meiosis).
Down’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome are the major
abnormalities in chromosomal structure. Third one is the complex disorders in
which mutations affect two or more genes. Environment plays an important role
in these multifactorial disorders. Alzheimer’s disease, Breast Ovarian Cancer
and colon cancer are the important multifactorial disorders. Strategies regarding
treatment for the genetic disorders do not alter the mask the abrupt changes in
gene structure but gene therapy is used to treat a few disorders. This
experimental technology involves to remove the harmful gene and replace it with
healthy one. Gene therapy with many other technologies are still under study in
medical experiments.