Geology: Tide and Continental Margins B. Essay

1013 – The Third Planet Quiz #3: Chapters 9 and 10 Multiple choice. (5 points each) PART I. A. Pycnocline D. Passive continental margins B. Thermocline E. Active continental margins C. Bathymetry 1. ______________________ occur where tectonic processes are not occurring and include the continental shelf, the continental slope, and the continental rise. 2. __________________ is a layer of water in which there is a rapid change of density with depth. . ____________________ is the measurement of ocean depths and the charting of the shape or topography of the ocean floor. 4. _________________________ are usually narrow and consisting of highly deformed sediments. They occur where oceanic lithosphere is being subducted beneath the margin of a continent. 5. A _______________________ is a layer of water in which there is a rapid change in temperature in the vertical dimension/ PART II. A. Turbidity currents D. Terrigenous B.

Mid-ocean ridge E. Hydrogenous C. Deep-ocean trenches 6. _________________ sediment consists of minerals that crystallize directly from seawater through various chemical reactions. 7. _________________________ are down slope movements of dense, sediment-laden water that flows down submarine canyons. 8. _______________________ are long, relatively narrow troughs that are the deepest parts of the ocean and are formed where older oceanic crust is being subducted beneath younger oceanic crust. 9.

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The ______________________ system winds through all major oceans in a manner similar to the seam on a baseball and is the longest topographic feature on Earth, exceeding 70,000 kilometers in length. 10. ____________________ sediment consists primarily of mineral grains that were weathered from continental rocks and transported to the ocean. PART III. A. Thermohaline circulation D. Hard stabilization B. Wave refraction E. Gyres C. Longshore currents 11.

Structures built to protect a coast from erosion or to prevent the movement of sand along a beach are known as _______________________. 12. Large whirls of water within an ocean basin are called ________________. These circular-moving current systems dominate the surfaces of the oceans. 13. Because the density variations that cause deep-ocean circulation are caused by differences in temperature and salinity, the deep-ocean circulation is also referred to as __________________. 14. The bending of waves, called _____________________, plays an important part in shoreline processes. 5. Waves that approach the shore at an angle also produce currents within the surf zone that flow parallel to the shore and move substantially more sediment than beach drift are called _________________________. PART IV. A. Submergent coasts D. Spring tides B. Tides E. Estuaries C. Diurnal tidal pattern 16. ______________ are daily changes in the elevation of the ocean surface. 17. Drowned river mouths are called ____________________. 18.

A ______________________ is characterized by a single high tide and a single low tide each tidal day. 19. ______________________ are created when sea level rises or the land adjacent to the sea subsides. 20. The combined gravity of the Sun and Moon cause larger tidal bulges (higher high tides) and larger tidal troughs (lower low tides), producing a large tidal range. These are called _________________________ , which have no connection with the season but occur twice a month during the times the Earth-Moon-Sun system is aligned.