Kenya lies along the East seashore of Africa covering an country of 586,350 sq kilometers, with an estimated population of 26 million. Agribusiness is the pillar of the economic system. Kenya is in the procedure of set uping a steadfast industrial base with import permutation and processing industries. The state aims at fall ining the freshly industrialised states position by the twelvemonth 2020. Tourism is soon the 2nd largest subscriber to the economic system after agribusiness.
Kenya ‘s touristry dates back to pre-independence yearss, history reveals that early visitants and adventurers started coming to Kenya chiefly for big-game hunting expeditions while others came in hunt of purdah. These early expeditions were referred to as “ Safari ” after the Swahili word. Kenya ‘s visitants rank among Statesmen, Royalties and famous persons such as Theodore Roosevelt, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the 2nd, and Ernest Hemingway severally.
At that clip there was already a comparatively good developed but limited touristry substructure. The adjustments were ideal for both the visitant and the Kenyan community colonists. After independency nevertheless the Kenya Government realized the potency of the touristry industry and undertook to upgrade bing substructures and superstructures together with puting in extra installations. The Kenya Government encouraged local and foreign enterprisers to put in the touristry and cordial reception industry, therefore paving the manner for future development of its touristry sector.
Kenya ‘s touristry industry is chiefly based on natural attractive forces which include wildlife in its natural home grounds every bit good as dramatic beaches. Approximately 10 % of the state has been set aside for preservation of wildlife and biodiversity. Game screening is a popular chase in Kenya. Most visitants are preponderantly interested in seeing large game, such as elephant, rhino, king of beasts, American bison and leopard, every bit good as other lesser and alone game the Africa ‘s Savannah and woods has to offer.
Kenya ‘s Safari is such a popular touristry merchandise that has enabled the state to go on entering singular growing in the volume of its visitants. Kenya registered good over 1,000,000 visitants in 1997 while the bed capacity rose to over 73,000 in classified hotels. The sector is a major employer as it presently employs about over 219,000. This figure represents about 11 % of Kenya ‘s entire work force.
Kenya ‘s touristry industry saw dramatic growing, which was characterized by strong authorities engagement and active partnership with the private sector. In visible radiation of its proved potency of the touristry sector authorities formulated touristry policies on the development of touristry in Kenya. This defined the growing targets that it hoped to accomplish in the old ages in front, every bit good as the lineation of the assorted countries where the authorities would take part jointly with the private investors in developing the tourer industry. The following chief Fieldss were covered in the authorities ‘s touristry policy:
Type of Tourism to be encouraged and developed
Protection and development of Kenya ‘s tourer attractive forces
Protection and development of tourer substructures and superstructures every bit good as other tourer installations
Training and work force development for the sector
Promotion and selling in the tourer bring forthing markets
The Kenya ‘s authorities projected an mean growing rate of about 20 % each twelvemonth in visitant reachings. As bundle Tourss increased, tourers tended to remain longer than was the instance antecedently. The growing in demand for hotel adjustment and other installations increased proportionally.
The focal point was on promoting specialized groups from the upper section of the market to see the state for large game runing expeditions and beach touristry. However this focal point subsequently shifted to aim the in-between income section of the market to see the coastal resorts which today histories for over 60 % of visitants to Kenya. Tourists took advantage of these inclusive circuit bundle agreements to see the county in big Numberss giving rise to the origin of high volume touristry in Kenya. This resulted in over-concentration of tourers ‘ activities in some countries, notably the Coastal beaches of the North Coast and Diani countries in the South Coast every bit good as in some National Parks and Game Reserves.
Based on these factors the authorities felt there was a demand to harmonise touristry activities and investing with a position to furthering the growing of sustainable touristry in the state. This led to the formation of the current Kenya ‘s National Tourism Master Plan which is in the procedure of being implemented. This Maestro Plan underscores the demand to diversify the touristry merchandise scope and open up new avenues such as escapade, lake sails, canoeing, inducement and conferences, athleticss and cultural chases. The current Tourism Development Master Plan ensures that these envisioned developments are non carried out at the disbursal of environmental considerations.
Today Kenya is home to some of the finest hotels, resorts and Lodges in the universe. Kenya offers luxury hotels with superior housing, dining and conference installations. There are many top quality circuit operators in Kenya. Most maintain high criterions of quality and are active in the publicity of the touristry sector. Kenya ‘s National Parks are wildlife and botanical sanctuaries set aside to conserve their alone species. Kenya is universe celebrated for its breathtaking landscapes.
As touristry has important influence on the local host communities particularly in the development states, the authorities of Kenya took into consideration both positive and negative factors that would act upon the diverse civilization of Kenyans.
The Kenya Government has shifted its focal point from over trust on high volume low output touristry towards the development of other alternate signifiers of touristry which contribute to preservation of the environment. Attention is still focused on touristry sections in which Kenya has comparative advantage such as in wildlife, Sun, sea and sand ; nevertheless particular attending is now being given to the impact of the touristry sector on the environment. Kenya ‘s new manner forward is aimed at re-enforcing the universally accepted Eco-Tourism and other signifiers of alternate touristry as outlined in the National Tourism Development Master Plan.
IDENTIFICATION & A ; DISCUSSION OF TERRORISM ( 15 MARKS )
WHAT IS TERRORISM?
The U.S. Department of State defines terrorist act as “ premeditated, politically motivated force perpetrated against non-combatant marks by sub-national groups or clandestine agents, normally intended to act upon an audience. ” Similarly, as terrorist act against tourers frequently involves international citizens, international terrorist act is defined as “ terrorist act affecting citizens or the district of more than one state. ”
WHY DO TERRORISTS TARGET KENYA?
Geographic location, poorness and unstable neighbors are some cardinal elements that have contributed to past terrorist onslaughts faced by Kenya.
Kenya ‘s alone geographic location Acts of the Apostless as a passageway from the Middle East and South Asia to East Africa and beyond. Therefore, Kenya had to provide for the many activities that would now be because of this tract so an extended haven was constructed every bit good as two international airdromes, one in Mombassa and one in Nairobi along with rail, route and communicating substructure. With these add-ons, travel and entry into and around Kenya is rather easy and normally vague due to its penetrable boundary lines coupled with its surrounding neighbors and unmonitored coastline. In peculiar, the Arabs in Kenya that occupy the coastal countries are closely linked to the Arabs in the Middle East as they both portion a common faith and linguistic communication. This has made it rather convenient for terrorist to intermix into the community.
For these grounds, Kenya is a preferable pick for terrorist to strike.
Discussion ON TERRORISM ‘S IMPACT ON THE HOSPITALITY & A ; TOURISM INDUSTRY IN KENYA ( 25 MARKS )
Tourism, one of the foundation blocks of Kenya ‘s economic system, constitutes 25 % of the Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) and has been adversely affected by the reverberations of terrorist act.
First, the inflow of tourer to Kenya can be estimated to over 500,000 visitants each twelvemonth. States such as Europe and the United States of America ( USA ) represent Kenya ‘s traveler bring forthing part with 70 % of the market being Europeans ( Germany, Britain, France, Italy, Belgium and Switzerland contribute the highest figure of tourers ) . In add-on, visitants come from Asia, with Japan as the taking market, Scandinavia, and other African states.
USA, Germany, Great Britain and some other states, upon having the intelligence about the terrorist onslaughts on Kenya ‘s US Embassy in Nairobi, the Paradise Hotel in Mombasa, instantly issued travel advisories to their citizens and imposed travel prohibitions to forbear travel to Kenya as it was deemed insecure. Furthermore, the extended media coverage of the onslaughts peculiarly focused on Kenya ‘s exposure to terrorism badly tarnished its image. These responses lead to a diminution in travel to Kenya and some adjacent states as travellers feared the spillover of the terrorist onslaughts. Consequently, Kenya ‘s touristry industry was paralyzed.
Kenya suffered a lessening in tourer reachings. This had a ripple consequence on all sectors of the industry. The cancellation of leisure trips and concern conferences were quickly on the rise. Kenya ‘s repute plummeted and this lead to the loss of its competitory value. Kenya was no longer an option to be considered for holiday or investing. Tourism catered to the employment of 500, 000 Kenyans runing from circuit operators, circuit ushers, travel bureaus, hotelkeepers, restauranters, little concern operators to airport and air hose forces. Subsequently, there was a important addition in unemployment as many Kenyans lost their occupations. Employees that were still employed received salary cuts. For case, at the Carnivore eating house ; all of the 330 staff had their wages reduced, including Dunford the president ( National Geographic 2010 ) .
The bombardment of the US Embassy had a monolithic impact on Kenya ‘s substructure.
Physical capital and substructure destroyed
This can negatively impact on Kenya ‘s touristry industry due to:
If many electrical failures occur during a period of one hebdomad, this can decelerate down the procedure of circuit operators updating their web sites, inefficient services at hotels, guest non being able to book their on-line reserves for hotel.
This can ensue in an extra cost for touristry suppliers to guarantee that they have the necessary back up in topographic point e.g. generator, to go on to service at the clip when there is a clang.
Decrease in foreign direct investing ( FDI )
Greater advertisement disbursals to pull more/new tourer ( selling )
Reconstruction costs for damaged tourer installations ; Clean up and Restoration cost
Security enforcement disbursals to decrease terrorist menace
Increase in domestic touristry
Development of new tourer attractive force
New security engineering
TRANSIT ROUTE REGION
Cancellation of flights
Merging of air hoses to last
Closing of some air hoses
Loss of gross
Increase security surveillance
Cruise ships no longer include Kenya on their path
Increase cost of ticket to see state with terrorist act
Discussion ON KENYA ‘S RESPONSE TO IMPACT OF TERRORISM ( 20 MARKS )
WHAT SHOULD KENYA DO TO SOLVE TERRORISM/ RECOMMENDATIONS
AFTERMATH ( DAMAGE ASSESMENT, RESTORATION & A ; CLEAN UP, MEDIA RESPONSE )
STRATEGIES TO DEAL WITH SITUATION
Scheme TO PREVENT SITUATION FROM RE OCCURING
STRATEGIES TO PREPARE FOR THE OCCURENCE OF SITUATION
Constitution of a Crisis Management Team and Preparation of Contingency Plans
Designation of the Crisis
Response to the Crisis and Minimisation of its Adverse Effects
Marketing Crisis – Struck Destination
Monitoring Recovering and Analysing Crisis Experience
REFERENCE TO CASE STUDY ( 10 MARKS )