HIS tiny processors embedded in ubiquitous computing

HIS paper is to present a
comparison between the most commonly published lightweight cryptographic algorithms. Lightweight cryptography algorithms
are constantly researched and developed.
Lightweight cryptographic algorithms are specially
designed for extremely resource-constrained devices such as RFID
systems, smart cards, and Wireless Sensor
Networks (WSN). The demand for such
lightweight encryption algorithms increases because small computing devices
such as RFID tags become more and more popular and establish a part of the
pervasive communication infrastructure. But this extensive employment of
computing devices is not only convenient, it also carries security risks 34. Symmetric
key encryption algorithms are of two
types: block cipher and stream cipher. A block cipher works on a block of data. The plaintext or message is
divided into blocks and each block is
independently operated with the help of key and with a new cryptographic
primitive called tweak 19. Design Constraints, unlike ubiquitous computing
devices; however, impose new constraints on
block cipher design due to their size and shape. First of all, the chip area
required for hardware implementation of a block cipher should be small enough
not to cause much increase in the cost of ubiquitous devices due to the added
security feature 26. Another and more critical issue in tiny ubiquitous
devices is the limited amount of power available. Only a small, finite amount
of energy may be available through a miniature battery to the tiny processors
embedded in ubiquitous computing devices such as mote-class sensors. 25 The
key issue of designing lightweight cryptographic algorithms is to deal with the
trade-off among security, cost, and performance 26.In this paper, firstly, we
define what cryptographic algorithms are
and quantitively discuss the most commonly used algorithms;
additionally, we demonstrate how unsuitable these algorithms for constrained resources devices in section 2. Furthermore, we
survey existing lightweight algorithms
and compare their characteristics in
section 3. Finally, we explore some of the known attacks have been applied to these
algorithms and their success rates in section 4.