International council of museums Essay


A museum is a complex establishment and shaping is non easy, the museum definition different from one to another harmonizing to his position about museum and what he like he dislike, the International Council of Museums ( ICOM ) has defined the museum as “ non-profit-making devising, lasting establishment in the service of society and of its development, and open to the populace, which acquires, preserves, researches, communicates, and exhibits, for the intent of survey, instruction, and enjoyment, material grounds of adult male and his environment. ”

The museums were developed significantly across the universe in the past decennaries, from the term museum which was foremost used in the Renaissance to mention to private aggregations ( cabinet of wonder ) evolved at the present to the construct of subject park museum. The push of the displacement is clear, with the development and the enlargement of the assortment of media that includes installing, picture and public presentation. The thought of art as amusement was appeared and museum has become topographic point for amusement.

This paper aims to understand the construct of amusement in museums, how amusement enhances the function of museum, and how can we utilize the amusement as tool for acquisition.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

NB. Many subjects and thoughts interlink and overlap…


The thought of amusement in museums has shaped through three phases, pre-modernity, modernness and station modernness. Foucault 1986 describes the museum in the pre-modern period as ‘in its most fleeting, transitory, unstable facet, to clip in the manner of the festival ‘ . Foucault gave paradigm illustration of such infinites, Foucault metropoliss ‘ the fairgrounds, these fantastic empty sites on the outskirts of metropoliss that teem one time or twice a twelvemonth with bases, shows, heteroclite objects, grapplers, snake-women, fortune-tellers, and so forth ‘ .

The chief characterize of the museums of pre-modern period ( 18th and early 19th centuries ) was the dressed ore on amusement more than educational end product. Murray argued, ‘the pre-modern museums were more concern to arouse admiration or create surprise. This entailed a focal point on the rare and exceeding, an involvement in object s for their remarkable qualities instead than for their typicality, and promote rules of show aimed at a sensational instead than a rational and pedagogic consequence ‘ . [ BENNETT, ‘The Birth of Museum ‘ , p.2. ]

The museums has changed from pandemonium to the order and system in the modern period, that was happened chiefly because all new museums had been established under the Museum or Public Library Acts, in this period the museums have developed in a scope of specializer museum types geology, natural history, scientific discipline, art, etc. besides the objects were arranged in a deliberate mode to do apprehensible a scientific position of the universe.

By the terminal of 19th century the construct of amusement park has emerged, amusement park is a combination between exhibition and carnivals with affixed site. Thomas Krens defines the art museum in this period as ” a subject park with four attractive forces: good architecture, a good permanent aggregation, premier and secondary impermanent exhibitions, and comfortss such as stores and eating houses ” .


“ I do n’t desire to be educated ; I want to be drowned in beauty ”

Diana Vreeland on the Metropolitan Museum of Art ‘s Costume Institute

The impression of amusement in museums utilizations chiefly to mention to the pleasance instead than teaching method. Pontus Hulten, the Centre of Pompidou ‘s first manager, said about the amusement in museums “ non about explicating but woolgathering, exhilaration. ” The amusement in museums non merely the art experience but besides it extends to affect the commercial comfortss that enhance the museums activities and do it more gratifying.

The amusement in museum have cardinal function of pulling people and it gives the museum a new vision of integrate the instruction with the amusement to organize a new thought the documentary. A 1990 article in the diary Museum News describes Disneyland:

“ Subject Parkss. . . suggest a new vision for instruction and exhibition, one based non on a actual or historical vision but an originals and community consensus history. They speak a new linguistic communication: multisensory, entertainment-based, 3-dimensional, and symbolic ” .

The commercial comfortss are indispensable portion of today museums for many grounds. First, it makes museum more socialize infinite, secondly, it is really good manner of funding and gives more abilities to the museums to develop while cut down the long-standing authorities support for cultural establishments. Finally, the museums which display their humanistic disciplines in a sense of merriment and have many types of activities vary from shopping, eating, public presentations, etc. hold more chance to pull more visitant than other museums.


Commercial comfortss in museums are non a recent phenomenon, from 1851 retailing had been indispensable portion of the experience in the Great Exhibition and in 1857 the first eating house was opened. Bennett ( 1995 ) said, “ in trying to go accessible to wider audience, museums have to pattern museum stores on the gross revenues mercantile establishments of tourer sites, but, he contends, while this may broaden their client base it will non, in itself, alter the composing of visitant, since the image of the museum as a middle-class preserve remains basically unchanged ”

Kotler ( 2004 ) thought that an discernible tendency in museums is the addition in attending to sociable, recreational and participatory experiences, airting the traditional and remarkable focal point on aggregations and exhibitions. While audience research shows that, for the bulk of visitants, societal and recreational experiences have become more of import the educational and rational 1s.

Kotler and Kotler, ( 2000 ) , today ‘s museum are in a state of affairs where they must accommodate amusement and instruction if they are to guarantee that people continue to see the instead, than see them as one-off leisure experience. [ public pdf ]


The sustainability of museums depend fundamentally on the visitants, how many visitants visit a museum, who are they, and how long they are likely to remain. The perusal of museum visitant is a critical issue for the concern program, for the proviso of activities and for physical layout. Kolter and Kolter ( 2000 ) suggests, museums have besides come to acknowledge the possible which tourists offer, particularly in footings of supplying gross to museum and enabling betterments in installations, services and plans functioning to installations and reenforce the museum traveling experience for a lodger audience.

Nowadays, it is noticeable that the museums change to hold a combination between educational, recreational, commercial installations to pull people from different classs and has a different involvement. Peoples visit museums chiefly for three grounds: ( 1 ) societal recreational grounds ; ( 2 ) educational grounds ; ( 3 ) respectful grounds. From these grounds recreational and societal considerations systematically rank high among grounds for sing museums. Surveies conducted at the Dallas Museum of Natural History, the San Francisco Zoo, the Natural History Museum in London, and Virginia scientific discipline centres, these surveies conclude that the visitants were sing chiefly for grounds refering to amusement, amusement, diversion, merriment, and societal concerns. Among the top five grounds visitant gave for sing the Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village outside Detroit, Michigan, were household merriment and togetherness, a safe environment, a good topographic point to convey pursuits, with the first ground the most extremely rated [ THE MUSEUM EXPERIENCE ] .


The synergistic show aims to make and run the effectual exhibitions which achieve their educational through hands-on entree while promoting a broader visitant base.

Tim Caulton ( 1998 ) “ The development of synergistic ways of shows has transformed the traditional museum universe in the last decennaries. Thrust into competition for the populace ‘s clip and money with all subdivisions of the leisure industry, museums must run with selling understanding. Visitors are no longer satisfied by simple gazing at worthy shows in glass instances ; they expect to hold custodies on experience of the object and be actively involved with the exhibits as a signifier of amusement ” .

Interactive museum presents widely uses in the scientific discipline museum, for illustration, Snibbe Interactive Museum in California create societal synergistic experience for museums that transport visitant into a charming shared world. Using digital projections and shows on the walls, floors, and tabular arraies of museums, people use their organic structures and societal relationships to research the universe ‘s enigmas together. The synergistic exhibit in Snibbe Lashkar-e-Taiba visitants touch and play with phenomena that are otherwise excessively little, excessively big, abstract, or unseeable. Subjects like carnal behaviour, nanotechnology, and cellular biological science come alive in fake physical games that inspire the following coevals of scientist and originative mind.


Presents, engineering has led to do every facet of our unrecorded into a signifier of amusement, BBC study ‘The Digital Home Entertainment Revolution ‘ estimates the entire size of the digital place amusement market at $ 129 billion in 2004, lifting to $ 166 billion in 2005 and $ 411 billion by 2010. This study gives an thought about immense demand on the digital amusement.

Technology provides the amusement in museums by many types of engineering such as pictures, games, simulation… etc. every type of these engineerings play critical function to makes the museum experience more gratifying.



Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers

1977, 1,000,000 square pess, 183,000 square pess of exhibition infinite, $ 100 million.

“ Museums are no longer places to continue plants that have lost their societal, spiritual, and public maps, but topographic points where creative person run into the populace and the public becomes originative ”

Pontus Hulten, the Pompidou first manager

Renzo Piano ( Italian Architect ) and Richard Rogers ( English Architect ) were won the 1971 international competition for mixed used cultural centre between 681 proposals were submitted. This undertaking was the beginning of their superb calling. From the early phases of the undertaking Piano and Rogers replace the competition plan description from “ a cultural Centre for Paris ” with “ a unrecorded Centre of information and engineering ” this alteration of undertaking description by Piano and Rogers to guarantee the exhilaration from the get downing [ towards a new museum ] .

The Georges Pompidou Centre is in many ways a seminal construction, and it has great impact non merely in the calling of designers Piano and Rogers, but besides for the architecture in that clip. Piano said about the Pompidou Centre design after twenty old ages “ we were immature and it was really much an ‘in your face ‘ sort of edifice ” . He may hold about regretted the overtly industrial expression of the edifice that has tended to befog its existent intent.

This undertaking intended to make a new sort of public place, and a landmark edifice with really flexible infinites, and it works as a show window of modern Gallic civilization in the spirit of President Pompidou.

“ It is my belief that exciting things happen when a assortment of overlapping activities designed for all people-the old and the immature, the blue and white neckband, the local dweller and the visitant, different activities for different occasions-meet in a flexible environment, opening up the possibility of interaction outside the confines of institutional bounds. When this takes topographic point, deprived countries welcome dynamic topographic points for those who live, work and visit ; topographic points where all can take part, instead than less or more beautiful ghettos. ”

Richard Rogers, 1969

Pompidou Centre was a portion of a monolithic reclamation undertaking which cause enormous societal and economic turbulence and be given to be extremely controversial, because major reclamation undertakings usually fring the low income populations.

In 1977, when Pompidou Centre was opened for the populace as the first big modernist construction to travel up within the metropolis ‘s bosom, Pompidou appeared sharply foreign to many, and a considerable argument begun over the self-asserting industrial manner of the Pompidou centre. However, Piano and Rogers scored positively by construct the edifice in one side and go forthing more than half the site opens for a public square on which country ‘s street live could go on. The construct of Piano and Rogers which considered as the greatest centre ‘s achievement is the lively out-of-door place, whose life would be reflected in the moving escalators.

By the superb appraisal of the applied scientists Peter Rice and Tom Barker, the design took the existent signifier, six narratives high with 48 metre clear span, the construction form a monolithic transparent regular hexahedron whose open frame of cannular steel columns carries monolithic trusses crossing the breadth of the edifice. Pompidou centre exposed its mechanical, electrical, and H2O supply systems and distinguishable each system by different coloring material, lift in ruddy colour ; escalator in clear plastic tunnels ; elephantine tubings for air painted blue, H2O ( green ) , and xanthous colour for electricity, all are conspicuously placed outside the chief columns.

The Pompidou centre consist of four degrees belowground and five degrees above land on the north south axis along the herb of grace du Renard. Pompidou chief attractive force is the National Center of Modern Art, that is in add-on to other installations such as, an industrial design centre, library, IRCAM ( Institute de Recherch & A ; eacute ; et de Coordination Acoustiue-Musique ) , the Cinematheque Francaise auditorium, a eating house, saloon… etc. Pompidou library which it the metropolis ‘s first open-access public library is the most of import constituent of the undertaking for the Parisian.

The exhibition halls in Pompidou centre shows picture, picture taking, sculpture, historical newspaper, phase sets, architectural theoretical accounts, periodicals and pictures, this manner of show gives the visitants the chance to make for themselves an overall background for the art. Besides the synergistic multimedia attack which used in Pompidou centre is an effectual agencies of supplying a context frequently absent in the other museums.

Pompidou centre have been criticized in many facets, but whatever the edifice jobs, the Pompidou centre attracted more than 160 million people since its startup, and 26,000 day-to-day visitants five times more than intended, this cause most of the installations to be shut down for redevelopments, to be reopened once more in 1999. Pompidou in fact is 3rd most visited in Paris and enhances significantly to do Paris figure one tourer attractive force.


Groningen, Netherland

Designers Coop Himmelblau, Philippe Starck, Michele de Lucchi, and Alessandro Mendini with Francesco Mendini.

1994, 86,650 square pess, 47,360 square pess of exhibition infinite, $ 13 million.

Frans Haks, the manager of the Groninger Museum was hold a dare construct when he received funding to construct a new edifice from the local Dutch gas company, his construct was that the architecture should be really different from that of traditional museums that would do the visitant bead all the prepossession about art and let them to make new thoughts about what they saw. Disneyland was inspired Frans by the thought of the detached marquees, each marquee different from the following, immerse the visitant into different experiences.

Frans said about Groninger design construct “ the Groninger is non like the Met, where you have to go through through one section to acquire to another: each of our entrywaies leads straight to what you want to sea ” . In the Groninger the interior decorators try to see every facet of in the design to do the visitant experience more enjoyable.

Frans went to Alessandro Mendini to recognize his constructs, Mendini was interested in doing possible interaction between architecture, object and spectator found a akin spirit in Haks, whose “ self museumizing ” system require the visitant to “ playfully see ” an object and its history alternatively of passively detecting it. Added to this is Mendini ‘s construct of museum non as impersonal but as confidant, “ a poetic minute in the life of the metropolis ” .

Rem Koolhaas and Josef Paul Kleihues was in the hunt commission for a suited site and they conclude to that it is better to integrating the museum into new program for developing the interior metropolis. The commission and the Architect Georgio Grassi collaborated and developed the construct of the unreal island which located in the canal nexus, this construct act as nexus between the metropolis centre and the railway station. The typical location which it links by Bridgess between the two sides of canal the Groninger ‘s island has become a gateway to the metropolis through which more than 1.5 million people are expected to go through yearly. This interpolation of the edifice into the community ‘s circulation countries to some extent resembles Pompidou centre in Paris.

The Groninger design appears as three little islands connect together by Bridgess. The cardinal island which desined by Alessandro and Francesco Mendini has 200 pes high storage tower as a really distinguished characteristic with gilded plastic clad, besides this cardinal island contains the entryway hall, store, caf & A ; eacute ; in the land floor, auditorium, library, seminars suites, two galleries at the below degree.

The E island where the marquee of modern-day art and impermanent exhibitions is located, this marquee was designed by Mendini squad. Michele de Lucchi ‘s designed the archaeology and history marquee on the west side, local brick and aluminium sheets are the marquee external stuff.

Colorss ‘ interventions are one of the most interested things in the Groninger ‘s interior infinites, particularly the chief entryway stairway which it full of colourss, while the West stairwell clad in bright blue, green and xanthous tiles, and at the E, a curvilineal stairway spirals upward like a big white sculpture within a triple-height, sky bluish country where the art displayed.

Every designer has his ain character of each Groninger marquee allows for scenes unambiguously suited to the show, and Haks and Mendini success to do the architecture relates straight to, and enhances, the art objects and artefacts.


  1. Alexander, E. P. , Museum in Motion. An Introduction to the History and Functions of Museums, ( Maryland: Atlanta press,1996 ) .
  2. Carbonell, B. M. , Museum Studies. An Anthology of Contexts, ( Oxford: Black Well Publishing Ltd,2004 ) .
  3. Timothy, A. and Paine C. , Museum Basics, ( USA: Routledge, 1993 ) .
  4. Black, G. , The Engaging Museum. Developing Museum for Visitor Involvement, ( Oxon: Routledge, 2005 ) .
  5. Swarbrooke, J. , The Development and Management of Visitor Attractions, ( Butterworth Heinmann, 2002 ) .
  6. Falk, J.H. and Dierking L. D. , The Museum Experience, ( Washington DC: Howells House, 1992 )
  7. Victoria, N. , Towards a New Museum, ( New York: The Monacelli Press, 2006 ) .
  8. Hein, G. E. , “ Learning in the Museum ” , ( New York: Routledge, 1998 ) .
  9. Jodidio, P. , Piano. Renzo Piano Building Workshop 1966 to today. ( Ney York: Taschen, 2008 ) .
  10. Greenhill, E. H. , Museum and their Visitors, ( London: Routledge, 1994 ) .
  11. Caulton, T. , Hands-on Exhibitions: Pull offing Interactive Museums and Science Centres, ( London: Routledge, 1998 ) .
  12. Herbert, B. , Fasel, B. , and Gool, L.. ( 2007 ) , Interactive Museum Guide, study to Computer Vision Laboratory ( BIWI ) , ETH Zurich.
  13. Gayle, M. , ( 2005 ) , Public memories and Private Tastes: The Switching Definitions of Museums and their Visitors in the UK, study to Museum Management and Curatorship.
  14. Hawkey, R. , Learning with Digital Technology in Museums, Science Canters and Galleries, study figure 9, Futurelab series, King College, London.
  15. Great edifices, Centre Pompidou, WWW at great edifices. Internet page at: hypertext transfer protocol: // ( Accessed 29.12.09 Created 01.01.08 Revised n.d. )