INTRODUCTION like proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic


Biomolecules are molecules that occur naturally in
living organisms. Biomolecules include macromolecules like proteins,
carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids. It also includes small molecules like
primary and secondary metabolites and natural products. Biomolecules consists
mainly of carbon and hydrogen with nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur, and phosphorus. Biomolecules
are very large molecules of many atoms, that are covalently bound together. The
four molecules of life: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids are
vital for every single organism on Earth. Without any of these four molecules,
a cell and organism would not be able to live. All of the four molecules of
life are important either structurally or functionally for cells and, in most
cases, they are important in both ways.


Carbohydrate is
an organic compound, it comprises of only oxygen, carbon and hydrogen (C, H,O).
The oxygen: hydrogen ratio is usually is 2:1. The empirical formula being
Cm(H2O)n (where m can be different from n). Carbohydrates are hydrates of
carbon, technically they are poly hydroxyl aldehydes and ketones. In Addition,
human can’t produce carbohydrates but rearrange to glycogen to store in
liver.  There are many various function
of carbohydrates for example is, it act as major source of energy, a short term
energy storage, as intermediate term energy storage, as structural component in
cell membranes (cellulose and chitin).


primary structure is a long chain made of many smaller molecules called amino
acids. There are 20 different amino acids that are used to build proteins. The
different amino acids can be arranged into trillions of different sequences
that each creates a unique protein. The long chain of amino acids twists and
folds on itself to produce the final shape of a protein. Amino acids contain
nitrogen. Nitrogen-based compounds are an essential part of the diet of all
organism so they can produce new proteins for their cells. This is why farmers
often add nitrogen-based fertilisers to help their crops grow and why it is
important for humans to eat foods that contain proteins.


Lipids has no single common structure. The
most commonly occurring lipids are triglycerides and
phospholipids. Triglycerides are fats and oils. Triglycerides have a
glycerol backbone bonded to three fatty acids. If the three fatty are similar to
the triglyceride is known as simple triglyceride. If the fatty acids are not
similar to the fatty acids are known as mixed triglyceride. The second
most common class of lipids are phospholipids. They are found in membranes
of animal and plants. Phospholipids contains glycerol and fatty acids,
they also contain phosphoric acids and a low-molecular weight alcohol. Common
phospholipids are lecithins and cephalins. 


Nucleic acids are composed of nucleotide monomers
linked together. Nucleotides contain three parts which is a nitrogenous base, a
five carbon sugar and a phosphate group. Nucleotides are linked together to
form polynucleotide chains. Nucleotides are joined to one another by covalent
bonds between the phosphate of one and the sugar of another. These linkages are
called phosphodiester linkages. Phosphodiester linkages form the sugar-phosphate
backbone of both DNA and RNA. Similar to what happens with protein and
carbohydrate monomers, nucleotides are linked together through dehydration
synthesis. In nucleic acid dehydration synthesis, nitrogenous bases are joined
together and a water molecule is lost in the process. Interestingly, some
nucleotides perform important cellular functions as “individual”
molecules, the most common example being ATP.


Water is a compound that consists of two hydrogen atoms and one
oxygen atom attached together by two sigma bonds and with two lone pairs of
electrons around the oxygen atom. This attachment of the hydrogen nucleus to
the central oxygen atom by electrons is called a covalent chemical bond. The
partial charges on the oxygen and the hydrogen allow for water to participate
in hydrogen bonding. The partial negative charge on the oxygen is attracted to
the partial positive charge on the hydrogen of another water molecule. The
oxygen atom is partially negative because the oxygen nucleus draws away the
electrons from the two hydrogen atoms.



Thus, the net charge of the hydrogen
atoms becomes partially positive. Due to this hydrogen bonding characteristic,
the water molecule exhibits an attractive force to other water molecules and
has the ability of ionization. Hydrogen bonding, although much weaker than
ionic and covalent bonding, is one of the strongest electrostatic interactions,
and is responsible for many of water’s unique properties, such as high melting
and boiling points, high heat of vaporization, and high surface tension.




As we all known, carbohydrate are one of the main types
of nutrient and the one that we needed in the largest amount by the body .The
most important role of carbohydrates is act as a source of energy. It also
produces for short term – sugar and intermediate term energy  for example like starch and glycogen. Plants also
use the sun’s energy and CO? to produce carbohydrates. These carbohydrates form
the foundations of almost all ecosystems on Earth. For an example, the
cellulose in the cell wall of plants and many protists act as structural
component. Using carbohydrates for energy prevents proteins being used for
energy. This is important because it allows proteins to be used for other
purposes such as metabolism and muscle contraction. Some of the more complex
carbohydrates provide structural support and protection. Plant and fungal cells
have cell walls made from carbohydrates. These cell walls provide protection
and support for the cell and the whole organism. Example is the present of
chitin in the exoskeleton of insects and arthropods. Carbohydrates are also
involved in cell-cell recognition. Cells have carbohydrates on the external
surface of their cell membranes that act as receptors. The receptors may
interact with the carbohydrates on the membranes of other cells and help cells
to identify each other. As
a conclusion, intake of carbohydrate is very important compared to protein,
lipid, nucleic acid and water because most of our body cells use simple
carbohydrate glucose for energy but our brain is particularly in need of
glucose as an energy source. Without carbohydrate, it will cause us to have
energy crash, digestive distress and possible to get a trouble kidney.

is one of the most diverse biomolecule among all biomolecule present and it’s
importance is no doubt vital for us. Most of our bodies’ proteins are
structural. The most obvious proteins that most of us would recognize are
muscles.  Muscle tissue attaches to bone, and when they contract they
allow us to move.  There is also specialized muscle that controls organ
functions such as your heart contractions, digestive movements, and
elimination functions.  Although bone is predominantly calcium, the
mineral is held together with protein. Nerves are mostly fatty compounds, but
protein is the framework that holds nerves together.  Blood vessels,
our organs, and our skin all have structural proteins.

 Without protein, you would lack the building
blocks needed for all tissue repair, critical enzymes and hormones you need for
all of your metabolic functions, and antibodies that help your body defend
against infections. Proteins are vital to all living processes and undertake a
wide range of functions quintessential to sustain life.  Thus, proteins
are one of the most important nutrients required by your body and must be
consumed in adequate quantity and quality in your diet.

We often
think of lipids negatively, because
we tend to equate them solely with fats. You might then be surprised to know
that lipids are quite diverse and are vital to every bodily system. Lipids
are important as a chemical messenger. All multicellular organisms use
chemical messengers to send information between organelles and to other cells.
Since lipids are small molecules insoluble in water, they are excellent
candidates for signalling. They may bind to certain proteins as well and are
inactive until they reach the site of action and encounter the appropriate
receptor. Next, lipids are also vital
for storage and provision of energy. Storage lipids are
triacylglycerols. These are inert and made up of three fatty acids and a
glycerol. Fatty acids in non-esterified form are released from triacylglycerols
during fasting to provide a source of energy and to form the structural
components for cells. Dietary fatty acids of short and medium chain size are
not esterified but are oxidized rapidly in tissues as a source of ‘fuel”. Layers
of subcutaneous fat under the skin also help in insulation and protection from
cold. Maintenance of body temperature is mainly done by brown fat as opposed to
white fat. Babies have a higher concentration of brown fat.

important of nucleic acids in
science is, nucleic acids are the only way a cell has to store information on
its own processes and to transmit that information to its offspring. When
nucleic acids were discovered to be the carriers of hereditary information,
scientists were able to explain the mechanism for Darwin and Wallace’s theory
of evolution and Mendel’s theory of genetics. While in disease, understanding
how genes are read by the cell and used to create proteins creates enormous
opportunities for understanding disease. Genetic diseases occur when errors are
introduced into the genes that DNA carries; those errors create faulty RNA,
which creates faulty proteins that don’t function the way they’re supposed to.
Cancer is caused by damage to DNA or interference with the mechanisms for its
replication or repair. By understanding nucleic acids and their mechanics of
action, we can understand how diseases occur and, eventually, how to cure them.


Water is important
to the mechanics of human body. The body cannot work without it, just as a car
cannot run without gas and oil. In fact, all the cell and organ functions that
make up our entire anatomy and physiology depend on water for their
functioning. Water serves as a lubricant in digestion and almost all other body
processes. The water in our saliva helps facilitate chewing and swallowing,
ensuring that food will slide easily down the oesophagus. Water also lubricates
our joints and cartilages and allows them to move more fluidly. When
dehydrated, the body rations water away from the joints. Less lubrication
equals greater friction and that can cause joint, knee and back pain
potentially leading to injuries and arthritis. Even our eyeballs need plenty of
lubrication to work well and remain healthy.
Our bodies can control over-heating through perspiration from sweat glands in
the skin and from evaporation which produces a cooling effect. Blood is also
routed into areas close to the surface of the skin where it can be cooled and
then carried back to the interior of the body. Conversing in a cold
environment, the skin maintains proper body temperature by shunting the blood
away from the exterior surface thereby conserving heat within the body. Blood
plasma play a critical role in buffering the body’s pH, circulating antibodies
from the immune system, and regulating osmotic balance which all helps to
maintain proper body temperature. Water
helps our bodies remove toxins in many different ways. Water flushes toxins and
waste from the body through urination and perspiration. Water helps reduce constipation
and aids in bowel movements which ensures that wastes are removed quickly and
regularly before they can become poisonous in the body. This waste buildup can
occur in the body if dehydration becomes a regular occurrence and this can
cause headaches, toxicity and illness.


Why is biomolecule
diverse ?


As for biological molecules, it is easy to see how the
theme of diversity applies. All biological molecules use a relatively small
number of building block, monomers to make a diverse
array of larger polymers called as biopolymers. Within
each class of biomolecules, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids,
the same monomers are used again and again, and diversity results
from placing the monomers together in different ways.

As for carbohydrate, looking at the wide variety of polysaccharides that
exist, the polysaccharide of choice for plants is starch. Turns out that there are
different kinds of starches, and these different types arise partly as a result
of chemical bonds. By the fact that they have the exact same building
blocks, different starches are united and diversity arises when those
building blocks are assembled in different ways.

For lipids, they
are a diverse group of hydrophobic biomolecules. Similar to carbohydrates, lipids
are used for long-term energy storage. They are nonpolar, which makes them
water-repelling as they are hydrophobic and does not dissolve in water.

Looking at
proteins, amino acids are the building blocks of them. Amino acids are linked
together by covalent bonds called peptide bonds. This diversity are important
because proteins are essential biomolecules in all cells. They give a cell
structure, communicate information, synthesize molecules, transport molecules,
and make up enzymes, molecules that speed up chemical reactions necessary for

Nucleotides are
the building blocks of nucleic acids, including DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and
RNA (ribonucleic acid ). Two DNA strands are typically joined together via weak
hydrogen bonds between nitrogenous bases. The DNA strands twist around further
to form the familiar double helix configuration. In contrast, RNA is typically
single stranded and does not form a double helix. This diversity is important
as the arrangement of nucleotides in DNA stores the code for which amino acids
should be brought together in the protein. RNA helps by transferring amino
acids to ribosomes for protein creation and by helping to build new proteins.

Dealing with
biomolecular diversity becomes the over-arching theme for downstream
bioprocessing as antibody variants, vaccines, recombinant proteins, gene
therapies, nucleic acid, peptides and various combinations thereof enter
development pipelines.


Melodie Anne
Coffman, How do Carbohydrate Apply in Daily life

 Tutor Vista, Carbohydrates

Nina K. (2017, Oct
03) What happens if you don’t eat enough carbohydrate