Job Satisfaction Among The Employees Of Telecommunication Sector In Pakistan Essay

Every organisation in the universe gives importance to actuate their employees through assorted plans, processs, tools and techniques which will back up and assist their employees, . Motivation is the cardinal factor for an employee working anyplace. Writers have defined the construct of motive as: the psychological procedure that gives behavior intent and way ( Krietner 1995 ) ; a sensitivity to act in a purposive mode to accomplish specific unmet demands ( Buford, 1995 ) . Motivation is an of import point for directors in the organisation because this is the thing which helps employees to work efficaciously and expeditiously. Peoples have the different behaviour and demands so the directors or the senior individual in the organisation use the different tools to actuate the employees. In this research, values and motive factors will be analyzing in the Pakistani civilization that how it is altering and how it effects the motive of employees. It is of import for a director to happen what actuate employees. In this survey we are besides analyzing the values of employees in Pakistan that, to what they give more value, working environment or the benefits which are given to them and through which they motivate more, with their concerted and friendly working environment or they motivate merely with the benefits and compensation, such as ( salary, wagess and encouragements ) .

1.2 Scope of the Research:

This research will be applicable for the organisations to pull off the employee ‘s behaviour and their motive degree through different motive factors, and will take to the director to do a motivated environment for the employees at their workplace, so that employees can be motivated and work efficaciously and expeditiously.

1.3 Contextual model:

In this survey research worker will be analyzing the values of employees in Pakistan that, to what they give more value, working environment or the benefits which are given to them, and through which they motivate more, with their concerted and friendly working environment or they motivate merely with the benefits and compensation, such as ( salary, wagess and encouragements ) .

1.4 Problem statement:

The consequence of different motive factors on the occupation satisfaction of the lower directors in the telecommunication industry of Pakistan.

1.5 Purpose of the research:

The intent of research is to analyze the behaviour of the employees in telecommunication sector of Pakistan and their values which will take to their motive and occupation satisfaction.

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1.6 Research Question

What are the motive factors through which employees are motivated in the telecommunication sector of Pakistan?

1.7 Justification

This research will assist the organisation to cognize more about the employee ‘s motive factors which are altering in the dynamic environment. This will besides assist the directors to actuate and fulfill the employees with regard to their values what they perceive.

1.8Limitation

The research is carry oning to place those factors which are act uponing on employees motive in private organisation of Karachi. For carry oning this research, fiscal resources and clip restraints will connote on this survey as research workers can non take the big figure of organisations for informations aggregation.

Chapter 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Over the last 10 old ages the telecommunication industry has grown really quickly in Pakistan, it is one of really effectual industry which pulling the possible clients and the possible employees because of his rapid growing and development across all over the Pakistan. Pakistan is the universe ‘s 3rd fastest turning telecommunications market, adding on an mean two million cellular endorsers per month ( Joseph Wilson 2008 ) . The telecom sector as a whole grew by 80 % during the twelvemonth 2007 compared to the mean growing rate of 100 % in the pervious four old ages ( Wilson 2008 ) .

Employees are really much connected with their companies where they work, they are really much sensitive about their organisations that how their organisations are carry throughing their demands and outlooks. To carry through these demands and the outlooks, an organisation and their directors needs to develop some schemes and plans to actuate and promote the employees, so that the employees will be satisfied with their occupations and will besides be loyal for their organisations where they work ; which leads to increase in organisation ‘s productiveness, effectivity and efficiency.

Motivation is the key which help the organisations to carry through their ends and it straight affect the efficiency and effectivity of an organisation with regard to its productiveness. Motivation is an of import term, nevertheless difficult to specify ; motive is something that determines how a individual will manage a state of affairs in footings of strength and psychological energy ( Anna Axelsson and Sandra Bokedal 2009 ) .

There are two types of motive, one is intrinsic and other one is extrinsic:

2.1 Intrinsic motive

This motive comes from the surveies of societal and educational psychologist. These types of motive are seen in the pupils and the employees in the organisation. Intrinsic motive comes from wagess built-in to a undertaking or activity itself – the enjoyment of a mystifier or the love of playing ( Deci, E. 1972 ) . Intrinsic motive, deducing from within the individual or from the activity itself, positively affects behavior, public presentation, and good being ( Ryan & A ; Deci, 2000 ) .

2.2 Extrinsic motive

This type of the motive which supports the intrinsic motive, because when you do something you have to acquire some in behalf of that so these motive is like money, incentive trophies etc. Luthan ( 1998 ) defines motive as “ a procedure that starts with a physiological lack or need that activates behaviour or a thrust that is aimed at a end inducement ” . Therefore, the key to understanding the procedure of motive prevarications in the significance of and relationship among salary, rewards and conditions of service.

Extrinsically motivated behaviors are actions that consequence in the attainment of externally administered wagess, including wage, material ownerships, prestigiousness, and positive ratings from others ( Thomas S. Bateman and J. Michael Crant 2001 ) . Extrinsic motive provides the single satisfaction in executing a undertaking that even if the person does n’t truly like making it, he or she continues to carry through the work because of his or her awaited wagess ( Cory Schop 2009 ) .

2.3 Compensations

For utilizing salary as a incentive, directors need to see four major constituents of a salary construction, which are occupation rate, payment, personal or particular allowances and long service. Job rate relates to the importance the organisation attaches to each occupation. Payment is the thing which encourages employees by honoring them harmonizing to their public presentation, personal or particular allowances associated with factors such as scarceness of peculiar accomplishments or certain classs of information professionals. Long service fringe benefits such as vacations with wage, pensions, and so on.

2.4 Money

Money is the most powerful motivational scheme, as far back in 1911, Frederick Taylor and his scientific direction associate described money as the most of import factor in actuating the employees to accomplish higher productiveness. Taylor suggest that the inducement pay system leads to the worker high public presentation, committedness, and adequate satisfactory. Katz in Sinclair ( 2005 ) explains that money has the power O attract, retain and motivate employees towards higher public presentation.

2.5 Benefits

Benefits are signifiers of value, other than payment, that are provided to the employee in return for their part to the organisation, that is, for making their occupation ( Carter McNamara 2002 ) .

In this epoch of globalisation, employees benefits are mandatory to actuate, promote, and productive the employees so that they can work more effectual and efficient. In benefits, there may be the things which are emotionally attached with the employees and may be facilitation provided them such as ; wellness Insurance, Retirement program, holidaies, stock ownership program etc. The benefits listed antecedently are touchable benefits. Intangible benefits are less direct, for illustration, grasp from a foreman, likeliness for publicity, nice office, etc ( Carter McNamara 2002 ) . But on the other manus these benefits could be expensive for the organisation to supply, so organisation besides needs to see other ways to actuate employees which could be:

2.6 Work Environment

Employees are really much concern about the organisational civilization and beliefs, which leads to the work environment of the peculiar organisation, It depends on the Organizational civilization which makes the environment healthy or bias, employees prefer the organisations where the cultural values are symmetrical with the employees values, so that they can set and work easy in such environment and may be more satisfied with their occupations. A decently designed work environment supports positive communicating and hence relationships among a company ‘s constituencies and contributes to a satisfied work force and clients ( Hartman, Jackie L. And Ningkun Wang 2004 ) . Rahat Kazmi has written in a station at Pakistan Times: “ In add-on to supervising the staff ‘s relationships, a good illustration of employee/management communicating is critical. Keeping an oculus on staff interaction does n’t necessitate to be clip devouring for the direction squad. He or she merely needs to detect organic structure linguistic communication and listen for negative verbal hints to go cognizant of a job. What happens after that is a affair of single company policy ” .

There may be supportive environment in an organisation where the supervisors support and do a healthy relation with their subsidiaries by supplying them the chances to take part and to present their positions and thoughts, and holding the engagement of the employees in determination devising procedures, that will be helpful for actuating and fulfilling the employees with their occupations, and they will be work more efficient and productive in such environment.

2.7 Factors impacting employee ‘s motive

There are many factors which affect the employee ‘s motive and this motive has direct impact on the occupation.

2.7.1 Job Satisfaction

This is one of the most of import factor s of the motive. This is the factor which leads employee to high motive and helps them working efficaciously and expeditiously. Types of satisfaction

When you are working and if your occupation is non disputing so this will take you to the dissatisfaction, so the construction of the occupation plays an of import function in the satisfaction of the employees.

If you have the occupation and you are making it in effectual and efficient mode so the senior individual should give some sort of assessment to actuate you and ask foring you to make that type of public presentation once more and once more.

Performance evaluation is besides the of import factor that leads you to satisfaction in the organisation.

These are the types which are found in the organisation, but when you talk about the conceptual satisfaction so this has four point graduated tables of measuring.

The organisation should alter or heighten the system clip to clip.

The assessment system consequences in the less work jobs.

The organisation or company should besides advise that the employees are satisfied from the system or non.

The organisation should besides cognize that, these appraisal systems are non the waste of clip.

2.7.2 Fairness

This is the factor which is really difficult to happen in the organisation. Appraisal is on the just bases is really of import in the organisation. There are four of import point from which you can construe the assessment equity.

Performance evaluation in just mode.

Appraisal system with just agencies.

Justice to employees.

Fair distribution of justness.

2.7.3 Perceived Utility

This is the point which has the comparing with satisfaction and equity. This sensed public-service corporation is comparatively consistent. Perceived public-service corporation has the focal point on the utility of the assessment system. Perceived public-service corporation Tells about the employee ‘s equity and his perceives that how he perceives the peculiar occupation ‘s work and its equity and how much he is acquiring the just determination about himself within the organisation by its direction. Through this fairness employees relate their occupation satisfaction that on what extent they are acquiring the just determinations that will take to their occupation satisfaction.

2.7.4 Perceived Accuracy

Accuracy is really of import in the organisation and work specification there is the difference between the typical and accuracy reaction. Here perceived truth leads to the matching between the organisation ‘s civilization and the employee ‘s ain values that how much he associate his ain believes and values with the organisation where he works. The truth should be at that place to comprehending the organisational civilization and environment so that it will be more satisfied with his occupation and the on the job environment.

2.8 PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

Some of the procedure theories of motive will be examined, which will leads to the motive factors for occupation satisfaction. These process theories may include:

Social acquisition theory

Operant conditioning

Expectancy theory

Equity theory

Goal puting theory and

Job design

2.8.1 Social acquisition theory

Learning plays an of import function to actuate the employees and to acquire their occupation satisfaction. The behaviours within organisations sometimes are learn behaviour. Learning can be in the sense of Perceptions, attitudes, ends, and emotional reactions. For Example ; some sort of troubled happens in the organisation which will be solved by the strategic planning and steering the employees to decide that job with the supervisor ‘s flashiness, can be a acquisition of employees. The nomenclatures used in organisations are learned ; the manner of life in organisation and the organisational behaviour are learned.

The Social larning theory of motive is proposed by Albert Bandura of Stanford University. He Illustrated that the people ‘s acquisition of new behaviour by the inspiration of their function theoretical accounts. Social acquisition means geting a theory much of our behaviour by observation and inspiration of others in our cultural context. The Bandura-inspired position of behaviour is that it is a procedure of personal properties and the environmental influences. Harmonizing to Bandura, societal larning theory explore that the behaviour is continuously interact between the cognitive, behaviour, and environmental variables.

Social larning theory introduces patterning, symbolism, and self-denial ( Xolani Enouch Tyilana, 2005 ) . Peoples may be inspired by their Parents, friends, heroes, and respected leaders because they identify with them. We all use symbolism to gaudiness for our behaviour. For illustration, during driving a auto we know that how much velocity should be for driving on the peculiar path because we have in our head about the accidents because of the over velocity drive: we set the personal aims and ends to actuate ourselves ; we use our outlook to retrieve our clients. We besides make attempts of self-denial by not-smoking, non imbibing and non physically assailing any individual who make negative comments about ourselves, household or any ethical issue.

A cardinal portion of societal larning theory is the construct of self-efficacy, defined as the belief that one can execute adequately in a peculiar state of affairs. Self-efficacy judgements act upon our picks of undertakings, state of affairss, and comrades, how much attempt we ‘ll use, and how long we ‘ll seek.

2.8.2 Operant conditioning

Consequence of behavior leads to the acquisition with another position. This type of acquisition is called operant conditioning. The individual closely associated with operant conditioning is the late world-famous behaviourist B.F. Skinner. Considerable rules of operant conditioning can help directors trying to act upon behaviour. One of the of import rules of acquisition is Reinforcement. In a general sense, support is an external cause of behaviour, while motive is an internal cause.

When a positively valued effect follows a response to a stimulation so the Positive support occurs. Therefore, anything that increases the strength of response and induces repeats of the behavior both is called Positive support. Factors such as rises, fillips, or publicities or less touchable things such as congratulations or encouragement are all comes in the positive rein forcers. There will be no any mensurable alteration of behavior take topographic point without support.

2.8.3 Expectancy theory

This theory is the procedure in which you choose or execute any activity related choosing. This theory tells the procedure of an single individual that how is make picks. In an organisation this theory is of import for the motive of the employees. This theory is given by the master vroom he gave three major points on which this theory is based

1. Valence

2. Anticipation

3. Instrumentality

( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.arrod.co.uk/archive/concept_vroom.php )

1. Valence

This is the of import portion which an person think for the result like if one want money so I will work for the money I will non see clip. So due to this an single sets their value to acquire something.

2. Anticipation

This is what you expect your first degree result to alter to the 2nd degree result like it believes that if we increase our attempt than the public presentation will automatically increase. for illustration, if I work hard so I will acquire better consequences. This includes three following things.

The right beginnings must be available. ( e.g. natural stuff, clip ) .like the natural stuff should be available on right clip at the right topographic point, on other manus the timing of handiness is more of import.

You should hold right accomplishments to make your occupation, like the accomplishments you have must be the same as the demands of the occupation.

You should acquire support to make your job. ( e.g. supervisor support or right information on occupation ) .supervisor and the senior individual of the house or organisation must assist the younger 1s about the occupation description and the things which are needed to finish the undertaking. Because these are the people who knows about the working environment of the house, they knows that how to work.

3. Instrumentality

This is the belief that if you perform good so the result will be valued.for illustration, if I will make a good occupation so there would be some thing for me to. These are affected by three points.

You should understand the relationship between the public presentation and the result.

Trust the people who are assisting you to make the result.

The procedure should be transparent so it will make up one’s mind who will acquire what result.

The whole anticipation theory revolves around the construct that there is the relationship between the people behaviour at work and their ends. Through this theory they got to cognize that is other factors are besides really of import like personality, accomplishments, cognition, experience and abilities of an single individual.

2.8.4 Equity theory

This theory explains the satisfaction in footings of the perceptual experience of legal and illegal, just and unjust distribution of resources with interpersonal relationship. This theory is besides known as the justness theory. It deals with all the issues related to justness like what is just and what is unjust among the people and among the distribution of things. It is all about the equity between the inputs of the employee harmonizing to the end product they are acquiring like if an employee is acquiring salary for 12 hours and he is working 10 hours so he is unjust with his occupation and this is non considered good in the organisation. It is about he inputs and results,

Input signal

Input is described by the part of yours within the organisation like clip, attempt, trueness, difficult work, committedness, ability, adaptability, flexibleness, tolerance etc.

Results

This is the thing which they get in by the organisation like occupation security, esteem, salary, employee benefit, disbursal, reorganisation, repute, duty sense of accomplishment etc.

Propositions

Every person wants to maximise their result.

There must be systems in which groups can acquire the corporate wagess through which they can work in groups. These work groups can affect the full group member to work good in order to maximise the net income, so in this manner they can work together in a group.

When person know that they are take parting good in an organisation so they ratio of emphasis is really minimal and in this manner the good the relation is with the company the employee will experience hard-pressed.

2.8.5 Job design theory

This theory seek to indentify undertaking features of occupations, like how these different type of features can unite to organize different type of undertaking, which besides include the relationship to employee motive, satisfaction and the public presentation. The purpose of this theory is to better the occupation satisfaction, result, quality and to cut down the employee job. The basic points which come under this theory are.

What are the things that motivate the employee during the work like id the employee is working so what are the things which will assist him making that work and which satisfies him to finish the occupation. This includes the usage of capacities, advancement, calling way, duties etc

Capacities

This is same as volume this is the ability to make something, to have something or to absorb some thing.

Advancement

Traveling frontward in a positive manner is your advancement this can assist you in accomplishing your ends

Career way

The manner where you want to travel in the hereafter with you professionalism and you work ability.

Duties

These are the undertaking or occupation under you in which you are the 1 who will be responsible for the undertakings.

Which things or features are important, like what are the things which are of import during the occupation? Like proper scanning, proficient analysis, internal system analysis, proposals for the alteration and execution

Scaning

Scaning is the procedure in which the trough maintain on tracking things which are traveling around the organisation this is to command the quality of the merchandise and to cognize that how the employees of the organisation is working.

Technical analysis

To analyze the information with a proficient attack is the key for the organisation because these informations can assist them to turn the organisation.

Internal system analysis

This analysis is within the organisation to cognize that the organisation is working good or non under the circumstance.

What you can alter in the design that can be implemented. Like is you are working in the organisation so what are the things which are altering in the occupations and which are the things that do assist the organisation to work more efficaciously.

The employee must be given freedom and independency to the construction, this will assist them to take little determinations.

Directors must supply changeless feedback like how the employees and working or executing so this will assist the employees to cognize at that place position that where are they standing and where they want to travel this will besides assist the employee to put their ends.

2.8.6 Goal puting theory

A end is the object of action, the end is what a individual attempts to carry through. This theory is given by the Edwin.A.Locke in this theory he tells about the scene of the ends and the properties of the mental procedure of end scene. This theory is for puting the ends which will assist you to work more efficaciously and expeditiously, everyone should put their personal end to make their, this ends vary individual to individual some of them sets little ends and have the ability to accomplish that ends and some of them set the large ends which are for the longer clip period.

The end can impact the public presentation in following ways:

Attention

Through the ends you can hold your narrow attending and direct attempt towards them.

Increase attempt

Through ends you can set more attempt on your work for illustration if you running in a race and your end is to win so you will set more and more attempt to finish the laps in the minimal clip so this will ensue in the accomplishment of the end.

Hard work

Through ends you can make more difficult work to accomplish the ends and acquire it by the clip. This includes all the attempt done to accomplish the end.

Execution

Through the execution the motive will better on public presentation, program, form and command.

Goal scene properties

Goal puting properties has specificity, trouble, strength and committedness in it

Intermediate reappraisal

Intermediate reappraisal has frequency, exchange of thoughts and medicine in it.

Final reappraisal

In concluding reappraisal you foremost discourse the things so analysis the development and so recycling will happen.

Restriction

There is the restriction of end scene, like in the organisation a end of the employee is different from the end of the organisation so this can make tonss of struggle like the employee will work for his ain end non for company so in this mode the company will endure, in this state of affairs the company and the employee should work together to decide the struggle and have a manner on which both can travel good.

2.9 OTHER THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

2.9.1 The inducement theory of motive

This theory gives us the basic construct of ends. If there is a end the individual will seek to accomplish that end. In accomplishing ends there should be an award or acknowledgment to that individual on clip because surveies have shown that immediate wagess or acknowledgment has greater consequence on motivational degree of a individual. This theory tells us that if you want the individual to reiterate the same action which satisfy the demands so you have to give something to him ; inducement, grasp etc to raise his/her motivational degree.

2.9.2 Drive decrease theory

This theory tells us that, all worlds are born with certain physiological demands like hungriness if you do n’t eat so the province of hungriness addition and negative province of tenseness is created but if you become satisfied than tenseness will cut down and the individual will return to relaxation province. Many psychologists believed that all motive depended upon the pleasance experienced when basic demands are met. An person may be motivated to finish a undertaking so it can be seen as a thrust if that undertaking is completed so the thrust is reduced. If there is no demand than job can happen. All types of demands are full fill when you satisfied your basic demands.

2.9.3 Cognitive disagreement theory

This theory tells, that if individual holding two contradictory thoughts at the same time or in a state of affairs in which individual has to take between two belief or action so cognitive disagreement occurs. The greatest disagreement occurs when two options are every bit attractive or when one thought implies the antonym of another. When disagreement occurs people have motivational thrust to cut down disagreement by altering their attitudes, behaviour or by apologizing them. It might be experienced as individual is frustrated, embarrass, choler or feeling guilt. This theory comes in the action when there is some uncomfortableness which is the consequence of the mutual exclusiveness between two knowledges.

2.9.4 Need hierarchy theory

Worlds have different type of demands and this theory tells the demands of the homo ‘s motive, direction preparation, and personal development in order to the importance. Indeed, Maslow ‘s thoughts environing the Hierarchy of Needs refering the duty of employers to supply a workplace environment that encourages and enables employees to carry through their ain alone potency ( self-actualization ) This theory is given by Abraham Maslow ‘s in his book Motivation and Personality ( 1954 ) . Everyone has demands and we are motivated if our demands are full fill. This theory will state how demands motivated us all. Leaderships should understand that which needs are more of import for employee motive. As this theoretical account indicates that low degree of demand as physiological demands and safety demands must be satisfied first before high-ranking demands.

( hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow % 27s_hierarchy_of_needs )

Physiological demands

These are the sidelong demand for all human existences if these demands are non full fill so the human organic structure can non go on map. Needs like nutrient, external respiration, H2O, sleep etc. worlds should hold these demands to last if these are non available so human being will be motivated to fulfill them.

Safety demands

Once a individual gets lower-level physiological demands, so his or her attending moves toward safety and security demands in order to be free from physical menaces every bit good as emotional menaces. These are the demands which you want to accomplish like security of your organic structure security of the employment, populating in safe country medical insurance or fiscal militias which is now a twenty-four hours ‘s really of import for all employees. If these demands are non met so needs up the pyramids will non have attending.

Love and belonging

After acquiring physiological and safety demands higher degree of incentive awakens that is societal demands involve feelings, fondness or belongingness. These are the demands which are of import to better your life and these helps human to determine up their life with big connexion groups ( office, nines, and civilization ) or with little groups like friendly relationship, household etc. In the absence of these elements many people become loneliness, down, diffident.

Self esteem

When the first three categories of demands are satisfied, the demands for regard can go dominant. These involve demands for both self-esteem and for the regard a individual gets from others. When these demands are full fill individual feels self confident and valuable as a individual in the universe. These types of demands are the incentives of the human like the external and the internal 1. If people have low ego esteemed so he will be looking for glorification or celebrity which depends on others. Self esteem demands may be assurance, regard of others, regard by others etc. There are two versions of regard demands, a lower one and a higher 1. The lower 1 is the demand for the regard of others, the demand for position, acknowledgment, celebrity, and attending. The higher 1 is the demand for self-respect, the demand for strength, competency, assurance, independency and freedom.

Self realization

When all demands are satisfied so the demand of self realization activated. This is the last and the of import phase of the demands, in this you achieve all the things and you start cognizing yourself. This demand is ne’er to the full satisfied because it required a individual to believe who is he, what he wants, and how he will acquire it. Self actualized people tend to hold incentives like wisdom, honest, truth, justness etc. In order to make this flat individual should hold a clear apprehension of other demands physiological demands, safety demands, societal demands, and self esteem.

2.9.5 Herzberg two factor theory

This theory tells us about the two chief factors in the occupation satisfaction this theory is given by the Frederick I Herzberg ( 1923-2000 ) was an American psychologist. This theory was presented in the twelvemonth 1957.herzberg takes aid from the Maslow theory and applied it to the working environment and in the consequence he knows about the on the job motive. He did these things because he wants to cognize that which are the state of affairss and the conditions are accepted positively and which gives the negative impact.

This theory is about the employee ‘s occupation satisfaction that how much he is motivated and satisfied with his occupation and what are the factors that causes the dissatisfaction among employees. This theory tells two factors which satisfies and dissatisfies the employees, some factors are at that place which dissatisfy the employees but it is non mandatory that if we remove or extinguish these factors so so the employees will b satisfied. Herzberg argued that the factors that cause satisfaction are different with the factors that cause dissatisfaction. The antonym of satisfaction there is no dissatisfaction but we will state the employee is non satisfied instead than employee is dissatisfied. Herzberg developed a theory named Motivation-Hygiene Theory to depict these consequences of two factor survey that employee ‘s satisfaction ‘s factors are non opposite to the factors that cause dissatisfaction among employees. He categorized the factors in two different scenarios which called satisfiers incentives and dissatisfies hygiene factors. The mean to utilize the word hygiene here is that some factors that are necessary to avoid the dissatisfaction but these factors are non supplying the satisfaction.

These are some factors which lead to the dissatisfaction among employees such as ; Company policy, supervising, relationship with foreman, work conditions, wage, and relationship with equals. On the other manus there are some other factors that lead to the satisfaction among employee, such as ; accomplishments, acknowledgments, work itself, duties, promotions, and growing.

Herzberg argued that there are two distinguishable demands of homo. The first 1 is the psychological demands which may be fulfilled by the money, and benefits. Second one is the psychological demands that can be fulfilled by the growing of employees by giving them the installations for such sort of activities that will heighten the employee ‘s creativeness and growing.

2.9.6 The even regulation

This is besides one of the of import theories of the motive. This theory is given by the John Adair in 2006 ; He says that there is the even ratio of motive which is presented in two different topographic points. Fifty per cent of the motive comes from within the individual and the staying 50 per centum comes from the external environment chiefly from the people. These ratios are non as exact in all the instances but still it works in the mode.

These are the major theories of motive which plays the critical function in the human behavior in the universe but our chief focal point is on the motive in the organisation and the values which are altering the employee ‘s motive.

This theory is about the motive of a individual that how he motivates with the different state of affairss and scenarios. The sense of motive among people can be built from his ain thought and born behavior and besides can be from the external factors and environment such as the cultural values, social behavior, faith believes, and other external influences that motivates and enhance and impact a individual ‘s motive degree.

2.9.7 Motivation at work

The motive at work is the of import tool for all the organisation or company because these motive leads to the effectual and efficient work. For any sort of organisation, motive for the employees at the work is necessary to increase the productiveness, as the employees are more motivated so they will be more satisfied with their work and they work more expeditiously and efficaciously and giving more productiveness when they are satisfied. It the first duty of the immediate supervisors to maintain actuating the employees at their work topographic point by appreciating, doing blunt environment, giving them the freedom of sharing their thoughts, creativeness, and enterprises, because employees are more affiliated and close with his immediate supervisor so that if every supervisor in an organisation play his function in actuating his subsidiaries so each employee working in that organisation will be satisfied and work more expeditiously and efficaciously and besides the employees will have that organisation There are two type of motive at work:

Self motive

Motivation by others

Self motive

The term means that when an employee start working he gets motivated and satisfied with his work because his demands, ends, and aims are carry throughing by making the work with the peculiar organisation. For illustration if an employee has a demand of acquiring a high salary bundle, compensation and his aim is to turn more and more in the peculiar field and his end is to accomplish a specific place in the organisation, so if the organisation successfully aiming these demands and aims of the employee and supply him all of his demands which he wants and help him to accomplish his ends so that he will be Self-Motivated because his all demands ends and aims are carry throughing by working with that peculiar organisation. It besides helps the organisation to increase the productiveness with effectual and efficient work by self-motivating the employees.

Motivation by others

When an employee starts working in an organisation and he achieves the demands, aims and the strategic ends for the organisation so the supervisors or the foreman will give him inducements or some give from which he gets motivated and reiterate the measure in the favor of the company. This type of motive comes from the external factors or from some people who do some actions or play a critical function that will actuate the employees. An employee is motivated when others in the organisation such as the immediate foreman or supervisor or any other college give him an grasp, inducements, benefits, friendly environment and other factors that motivates the employees. Peoples work with their involvement when they are motivated and satisfied with their work, how much they are motivated and satisfied they work with that extent of effectivity and efficiency. In today ‘s epoch every organisation is executing its function to actuate their employees so that they work with more satisfactory and bring forth the effectual work. This type of motive is helpful for the organisation because an employee is more affiliated with the organisation when the working environment is really friendly and concerted because of the supervisor ‘s closed relationship with the employees so that they are more satisfied and motivated with their work.

Motivation perceived by coevals

Many surveies are at that place who tells the relation between age and work motive. Surveies besides tell us about that the occupation satisfaction varies more with age by gender, instruction, cultural background or income. There is the coevals spread between the employees now a twenty-four hours. Baby bombers influenced their competitory nature and its coevals enjoys wining. These people make impact on the organisation and are really effectual in implementing the alterations in the organisation. Small things motivate this coevals like some inducement during the working and after the work every bit good. This coevals acquire motivated by acquiring instruction which can distinguish them by other and learn new things about the field in which they are working. Another coevals is the coevals X these are the independent people in the organisation. These types of people like to make things their ain manner and are motivated by the infinite given to them to work freely.

Chapter 3

Methodology

Hypothesis:

Holmium: Motivational factors do non act upon the occupation satisfaction among the employees of telecommunication sector.

Ho1: Wages do non act upon the employees occupation satisfaction

Ho2: Work environment does non act upon the employee ‘s occupation satisfaction

Ho3: Health and security installations do non act upon the employee ‘s occupation satisfaction

Ho4: Compensation and benefits do non act upon the employee ‘s occupation satisfaction

3.3 Variables

3.3.1 Independent Variables

Wages

It is the wages of the employees which they get on the monthly footing other than the fillips and the fiscal wagess or benefits.

Work environment

The working environment refers to the organisational civilization, such as the relationship among the employees and the supervisors, power distance, individuality or Bolshevism, and the advanced civilization where the employees are free to show their thoughts and holding their part in the determination devising.

Health and security

Health and security refers to the wellness and safety installations at the workplace and besides outside the workplace, such as the free medical service outside the workplace and supplying the proper safe environment at the workplace.

Compensations and benefits

Compensation refers to the fiscal wagess such as publicities, fillips, and other direct fiscal payments. Benefits are the installations and sometimes wagess other than the direct fiscal payments such as ; choice and bead installation, supplying the free medical services, and the annual foliages.

3.3.2 Dependent Variable

Job satisfaction

Job satisfaction refers to the degree of satisfaction of the employees that, at what extend they are motivated and satisfied with their occupation through the motive factors discussed above.

This research will analyse the factors of the motive that cause the employees occupation satisfaction in the telecommunication sector in Pakistan. The survey will be concentrating on the employees of lower direction from the telecommunication industry. The survey aim is to happen that, at what extent the employees are motivated in the telecommunication sector of Pakistan, and how much they satisfied with their occupations.

3.1 Research design

The quantitative research design is used in this survey, which will quantify the factors that causes the occupation satisfaction among the employees. Quantitative research is the statistical or mathematical attack to analyse the information, through which the informations can be quantify with the aid of different statistical methods or hypothesis and other mathematical processs. Quantitative research can supply a connexion between a theoretical observation and mathematical look of quantitative relationships. One of the advantages of utilizing this type of research design is that it gives more accurate consequences than utilizing the qualitative research design.

3.2 Population and Sampling

The population of the research is the lower direction employees from the telecommunication sector working in Pakistan, and research participants are selected indiscriminately and the sample size will be 100. The participants are targeted from the four telecommunication organisations which are Telenor, U- fone, Warid and Mobilink lower direction employees working in the Karachi at their caput offices and service centres, the participants will be both male and female within 5 twelvemonth of working experience. The lower direction employees such as receptionists, Coordinators, and other junior officers are targeted for research sampling. Sampling is the choice of the research participants from a big population who can stand for all of the population which research worker is targeted.

3.4 Research Instrument

Research instruments are the tools or techniques to roll up the information from the participants on the related research subject. The questionnaire is used in this research as a research instrument. The intent of utilizing the questionnaire as a research instrument is that, it will be easy and convenient for the research worker to roll up the information and besides it will take lesser clip to roll up the information from the participants, because questionnaires are filled at the clip of administering the questionnaires and the research worker did non necessitate to take any assignment or clip to run into the participants and roll up the relevant information from them. The inquiries will be closed ended and based on the Likert graduated table and made with the aid of the variables identified from the literature reappraisal. This type of questionnaire will assist the research worker to quantify the informations and to convey the objectiveness in the research. Questionnaire is one of the tool or instrument that can be used for roll uping the informations and thorough the Close ended inquiries, the informations can be easy quantify and analyse, while unfastened ended inquiries largely used for the qualitative research and it is rather hard to analyse because of surplus of the informations collected by the participants.

3.5 Validity and Reliability

To look into the consistence or dependability of the research instrument, the research worker will be utilizing the pilot survey trial. This pilot survey will choose a little sample size among the participants and look into the cogency of the instrument that if any job comes in the instrument or non. The pilot survey will be helpful to extinguish the jobs and do the instrument more dependable. To look into the cogency of the research instrument, the research worker will be confer withing with the adept individual from the Human Resource profession and besides consult to the research supervisor.

3.6 Procedure

The primary information is collected by the research workers. And the research information is collected by administering 100 questionnaires to the Head offices of the Telenor, Warid, U- fone, Mobilink and besides to their service centres. Research workers have targeted the employees from Karachi and divided in the four divisions ( North, South, East and West ) that are ; North Nazimabad, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Defense and Saddar. This type of scheme will increase the reliablility of the research. The questionnaires are filled by the employees working at the lower direction such as receptionists, Coordinators, and other junior officers and questionnaires are distributed and collected by holding a personally sing at the Telenor, U-fone, mobilink, warid and service Centers and besides their caput offices by the research workers.

3.7 Data analysis Technique

The quantitative method is used to analyse the informations through chi-square method. The intent of utilizing the chi-square technique is to prove the null-hypothesis which is identified in this research. The information which is collected from the participants through the questionnaires is in the non-numerical signifier. After analysing the quantitative informations, the consequences can be explored in the signifier of tabular arraies, chart, graph and other statistical signifier.