Johnson, Steven D. and Session, Laura A. “Insects & Flowers.” Natural History. March 2005.Insects & FlowersThe mega-nosed fly which resides in southern Africa has a very bizarre appearance as its proboscis or its mouth is as long as four inches from its head. While having a very long mouth might look like some sort of disadvantage, it is not. To this specific fly, its very large proboscis lets it have access to pools and pools of nectar in very deep and long flowers that are extremely out of reach for bugs with shorter or smaller mouth lengths.However, this large nose proposes certain questions such as to why natural selection would favor deep tubes in flowers as nectar has changed and advanced because it attracts animals that carry pollen from one plant to another or why is it not apparent that evolution favored flowers to make their nectar easily available to insects that pollinate them. There are pluses to the long mouth of the mega-nosed fly and the extremely long tubes of flowers, as nectar is more available only to a few insects that pollinate them. There are also natural factors that add a plus to this coevolution, which is the answer to many questions that have no simple evolutionary answer as it can explain the why some things have crazy and bizarre anatomies.In the early 20th century a giant hawk moth from Madagascar was caught with a mouth with the length of more than 9 inches. Even though nobody has even spotted the insect feed, the discovery made with the finding of this moth was very extraordinary and phenomenal as it strongly suggested the coevolution of the moth and the orchid. The mega nosed fly is one of the only ones that can even succeed in pollinating a group of unrelated plant species which we call a guild. Though guild members are not related, all of them have around the same traits. Flowers pollinated by moths that are likely to be narrow, white, long, and scented. The most bizarre thing about the pollination syndrome of this fly is a deep, tubular flower or floral spur. There was two people who were investigating this so they shortened the spurs of some orchids in an environment where the only pollinators were the flies. They found that the plants that the long spurs got more pollen than the short spurs they made. That doesn’t mean short spurs are at a disadvantage. Short spurs make it so that the range is wider of the pollinators so they can get to the nectar with ease. On the other hand the longer spurs only look to be in advantage when the long mouthed insects were the pollinators. So this enforces the conclusion that the length of the spur was an adaptation to the local distributions of long-tongued flies. The long-nosed flies get the luxury and privilege access to pools and pools of nectar and the plants pollinated by these long-nosed flies get an almost exclusive pollen courier service. However the long mouthed flies must go see and visit lots of plant species to survive and get energy or the food that they need. In addition, there could be cases where a fly ends up taking pollen from one species to a different species in the guild and thus waists the pollen. Or even worse, the foreign pollen ends up blocking the stigmata. But the female part of plants in the guild of this amazing mega nosed fly does not clog up, since there is in those types of plants there another very great adaptation that specialized pollination and has evolved. The flower arranges their anthers in a type of way that the pollen from each species sticks to the pollinator’s body in a different but regular plant-specific location. The fly then becomes an even more efficient pollinator.