Linguistic communications of Madagascar Essay

ANNA MAGERKO

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Madagascar

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1. MICROSOFT ENCARTA ENCYCLOPEDIA

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3. WORLD BOOK 1993

4. COLLIER ‘S ENCYCLOPEDIA

5. Academic AMERICAN ENCYCLOPEDIA

6. ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA

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8. WORLD ALMANAC AND BOOK OF

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Malagasy republic

By: Anna Magerko

Gallic 1

Mrs. Newsome

11/15/97

Malagasy republic

My study is on Madagascar. Madagascar is an island of the continent of Africa. It is the 4th largest island in the universe. It is in the Indian Ocean. Madagascar is formed by one big island and several little islands. The state & # 8217 ; s entire country is 226,658 square stat mis. It is about the size of Texas. The cardinal portion of this big island is made of a cragged tableland. This separates the sides of the island. Madagascar is partially volcanic in beginning. The sides of the mountain rise about 2,876 pess to the top. Maromokotro is located near the North of the island. The monolithic Ankaratra Mountains, near the capital metropolis of Antananarivo, rise to the tallness of 2,643 stat mis. The land slopes steeply to a little or narrow lowland surrounding the Indian Ocean in the E. There is a slightly broad coastal field next to the Mozambique Channel in the West. The best dirt in the state is found along the seashore, and in river vale & # 8217 ; s of the cardinal tableland. The major rivers of Madagascar are Betsiboka, Mangoky and Onilahy. All rivers start on the east side of the state, and flux west towards the Mozambique Channel. The largest lake is near Toamasina. It is called Alaotra.

The eastern portion of Madagascar gets a batch of rain, which is brought on shore by air currents coming from the southeasterly way. Annual precipitation in some countries on the eastern seashore is about 120 inches. The cardinal tableland doesn & # 8217 ; t acquire every bit much rain. Areas in the South and southwest acquire about 15 inches of rain. Most of the rain falls between November and April. Coastal parts remain at a warm or hot temperature throughout the twelvemonth. The cardinal tableland has a clime of warm summers and cool winters. Tropical rain woods are besides in Madagascar. The Savanna forests and grasslands grow in the desiccant western parts. Desert flora occurs in the utmost sou’-west. Animal life is uncommon in Madagascar. Lemur, is an animate being that is found about ever in Madagascar. All the animate beings that are in Madagascar portion features with animate beings in Africa. The differences indicate they evolved on Madagascar during a long period of isolation.

They have minerals in Madagascar like the 1s we have in United States of America. They have coal and nickel. Other of import mineral resources include bauxite, Cr, black lead, Fe ore, crude oil and Cu sedimentations, every bit good as little sums of salt, garnets, and isinglass.

Madagascar has an ethnically diverse population of 13,005,989. The figure of people populating there is turning at a relatively high one-year rate of 3.2 per centum. Some major cultural groups are the Merina, who makes up 27 per centum of the entire population, and the Betsilo [ 12 per centum ] who are related to the Merina. Both groups descended largely from Malaya and Indonesia about 2,000 old ages ago. The coastal countries are in habited chiefly by a group of assorted people. The lineages among these people are Malayo-Indonesian, black African, and Arab. The cultural groups are Tsimihety [ 7 per centum ] , Sakalave [ 6 per centum ] , and Antaiska [ 5 per centum ] . Merely 22 per centum of the entire population is classified as urban. Antananarivo the capital, is the largest metropolis with a population of 703,000. Other of import metropoliss are Toamasina [ 139,000 ] , Fianarantsoa [ 111,000 ] , Mahajanga [ 111,000 ] , Toliara [ 59,000 ] , and Antsiranana [ 53,000 ] .

The two functionary linguistic communications of Madagascar are the Merina idiom of Malagasy, a linguistic communication of Malayo-Indonesian beginning, and the other is Gallic. Approximately 41 per centum of the faith in Madagascar is Christian. Fifty-two per centum follows traditional beliefs and 7 per centum is Muslim.

In 1976 the authorities passed statute law doing six old ages of school mandatary. By the center of the 1980s the literacy rate was up 67 per centum. Virtually all kids in the age group of six to eleven accompanied simple school, and 21 per centum of those between the ages of 12 and 17 were enrolled in secondary school. The state & # 8217 ; s chief beginning of higher instruction is at the University of Antananarivo. Most of higher instruction centres are located in Antananarivo.

Madagascar & # 8217 ; s wireless and telecasting broadcast medium is provided by Radio-Television Malgasy and Radio Madagasikara. Both Stationss are province owned. Not everybody has a wireless or telecasting, so the authorities owns a newspaper, Madagascar-Tribune. There

is one other newspaper it is the Imongo Vaovao. Both of the newspapers are made in Antananarivo.

In 1975, Madagascar & # 8217 ; s authorities said, under the fundamental law, that the state was ruled by a president who was elected for seven old ages. They have a 22 member Supreme Revolutionary Council, which is appointed by the president. They besides have a Council of Ministers that is lead by the Prime Minister. They have yet another council it is called the People & # 8217 ; s National Assembly. It is a 137 member assembly, elected by the people. The members serve a five twelvemonth term. Madagascar & # 8217 ; s Judicial system is based upon that of France. It includes a supreme tribunal, located in Antananarivo, a tribunal of entreaty, 11 tribunals of first case, and particular economic and condemnable courts. Madagascar & # 8217 ; s armed forces has 21,000 members. Madagascar is a member of the United Nations. It besides is a portion of the Organization of African Unity, and several other organisations.

Malagasy republic is one of the poorest states in the universe. The state remains, like in colonial times, largely agricultural. Eighty per centum of the state & # 8217 ; s labour force is engaged in agricultural activities.

The chief nutrient harvests in Madagascar are rice, manioc, beans, bananas, maize, Sweet murphies, and cocoyam. The production of goods has non kept up with the turning population. Besides, the importing of big sums of nutrient, can & # 8217 ; t maintain up with it either. The hard currency harvests are java, cloves, sugar cane, sisal, baccy, and 80 per centum of the universe & # 8217 ; s supply of vanilla. Livestock includes 10.6 million cowss, one point one million caprine animals, and one point four million hogs. Not a batch of commercial fishing is done in Madagascar. Most of the fish caught is consumed locally. Attempts to refill the forest lands are underway. They are be aftering to make this because in the in-between 1980s 7.3 million three-dimensional pess of forest land was cut.

Public transit in Madagascar is non really high. The state has merely 549 stat mis of railway path. They have some 11,560 stat mis of route. Thirty per centum of the roads are paved. Merely about 36,000 autos are in usage. Toamasina is the chief port managing 35 per centum of the state & # 8217 ; s foreign trade. Mahajanga, Toliara, and Antsiranana are some other port metropoliss. Madagascar merely has four major airdromes. The international airdrome is located in Antananarivo. Madagascar has its ain air hose, which is called Air Madagascar.

Foreign trade in Madagascar by and large has a negative balance. In the late 1980 ‘s import and export values have increased. Coffee has made up 28 per centum of all exports by value, followed by vanilla [ 26 per centum ] , sugar [ five per centum ] , and cloves and split oil [ four per centum ] . Exports include Chemicals [ 15 per centum ] , machinery [ 14 per centum ] , crude crude oil [ ten per centum ] , motor vehicles and parts [ nine per centum ] , and metal merchandises [ seven per centum ] . The major trading spouses of Madagascar are France, United States, Germany, and Japan.

Of class Madagascar has its ain money. The money in Madagascar is called Malagasy franc. One dollar in US currency is equal to 1846.87 Malagasy francs.

The history of Madagascar, first European to spy the island was Diogo Dias. Dias was from Portugal. He found the island some clip in the 1500s. During the seventeenth century, the Portuguese, the English, and the Gallic in turn and unsuccessfully tried to colonise Madagascar. The Gallic got a impermanent clasp on the island in 1642. They were driven out in 1674. They eventually acquired trading topographic points along the east seashore in the undermentioned century. From 1810 to 1828, during the reign of the Merina male monarch, Radama I, who didn & # 8217 ; t like the Gallic, allowed the English to come and populate at that place. British officers trained Merina military personnels, and British missionaries introduced Christianity. After the decease of Radama I, a strong reaction towards European civilization developed. Reforms were abolished, the missionaries were persecuted, and trade dealingss with Great Britain were severed. Radama II reigned from 1861 to 1863. He was a by and large a progressive swayer. He got along with the Gallic. Radama II was killed because of this fact. There was a period of clip when they & # 8217 ; re reasoning with the Gallic. After that period of clip, Queen Ranavalona III took over opinion Madagascar, in 1895. In 1896, because of popular rebellions, Madagascar was proclaimed a settlement of France. Then military regulation was instituted, and the queen was sent out of the state and was non allowed to return. Now Madagascar has its ain authorities, and is come oning good. They have a system similar to the United States. They have a Congress, a fundamental law, and a president. Their president is elected for a seven twelvemonth term. Unlike our president & # 8217 ; s term that is merely for four old ages. The official name for Madagascar is Democratic Republic of Madagascar.

I chose to make my study on Madagascar because it is an island. I love islands. I have ever wanted to populate on an island. Another ground I choose Madagascar was because I had heard of Madagascar but ne’er truly found out where it was until I did my study.