The intents of the industrial fond regard programme is to nurture pupils to be effectual and productive to their future employment organisations, as the industrial fond regard programme addendums NTU ‘s in-house practical professional preparation, lessen on-the-job preparation ( s ) of pupils, and/or transfuse the positive work attitude and professionalism.
Company profile overview
Henri Nestle , a trained druggist, founded Nestle Company in 1866. With the motive of seeking for a healthy and economical option of infant nutrition for female parents who were unable to suckle, he developed a babe cereal: Farine Lactee Henri Nestle ( translates to pamper cereal ) . With this new merchandise, Henri Nestle hoped to accomplish his ultimate end of battling infant mortality due to malnutrition.
In the 1920s, Nestle expanded beyond its traditional merchandise line of milk-related merchandises. After Chocolate — the Company ‘s 2nd most of import merchandise line, new merchandises followed steadily: Milo ( powdery drink ) , powdered buttermilk for babies, and in 1938, Nescafe , the popular family java.
Concentrating on convenient, alimentary, delightful nutrients and drinks, Nestle is committed to going the really best nutrition, wellness and Wellness Company, and remain on at the taking border in cardinal scientific subjects in order to stay at the head of the Food Industry.
The Company Logo
Nestle really means ‘little nest ‘ In German idiom. The Nestle logo with the nest was adopted as his ain coat of weaponries and hallmark in the Food Industry. The logo, a nest incorporating a female parent bird and her babes, bases for security, pregnancy and fondness, nature and nutriment, household and tradition.
Trade names and Merchandises
The Nestle Gold Collection -Nestle Gold – the really best cocoas from Nestle .
Have a interruption, have a KIT KATA®Created in 1935, and known as Row tree Chocolate Crisp.
MILKYBARA®has a typical gustatory sensation profile and milk content up to 50 % to 100 % higher than for ordinary milk cocoa.
NESVITAa„? NESTUMA® 3-in-1 Cereals NESTUMA® 3in1 Cereal. It is the first in the market with low in fat and less sugar.
NESTLE BLISS Yoghurt Drink ~ The No.1 Yoghurt drink
More Malt, More Milk MILOA®
Produced in Singapore, the new expression MILOA® boasts of more malt, more milk and is produced utilizing the best ingredients from around the universe!
MAGGIA® HCS Low Fat NoodleMAGGIA® LOW FAT NOODLES – The Ultimate Healthier Choice,
Best Enjoyed without Guilt!
MAGGIA® Stock -No Added MSGfor healthy and wholesome repasts.
MAGGIA® HCS Sauces – Chilli & A ; Tomato — The No. 1 trade name of Chilli and Tomato Sauces in Singapore! Now with up to 40 % LESS Salt.
Complete Liquid Nutrition for Children
The universe ‘s prima energy saloon, POWERBARA®PERFORMANCE has fuelled more than 200 Olympic jocks.
Nestle R & A ; D Center ( Pte ) Ltd, Singapore
As one of Nestle S.A. ‘s international web of 17 R & A ; D centres, Nestle Research and Development Centers ( R & A ; D ) Singapore, works in close coaction with the Product Technology Centers to run into regional R & A ; D demands and supply input to local application groups. It is a critical constituent in presenting local gustatory sensation and balance to merchandises which support the quickly turning Asiatic markets. The R & A ; D work takes into history local gustatory sensations and penchants, in add-on the cultural and cultural considerations. These activities are by no agencies limited to Asia and benefits Nestle as a whole. In other words, typical Asiatic culinary arts are developed to accommodate the gustatory sensations of people all over the universe.
There are 9 different sections working together to carry through Nestle ‘s aims and vision in this R & A ; D Center, Singapore, they are Management Services, Culinary, Milo Hub, Noodles, Nutrition & A ; Manufacturing Support, Engineering & A ; Pilot Plant, Food Science & A ; QA ( Quality Assurance ) , Product Design, Packaging & A ; Design, NQAC ( Nestle Quality Assurance Center ) . Owing to the close cooperation of all the 9 sections, Nestle has contributed towards the wellbeing of Singaporeans non merely through its high quality merchandises, but has besides played a function in societal development and environment preservation.
Introduction to Project involved during fond regard
The aim of the undertaking within the industrial fond regard is to better the output of hydrolysis and inhibit growing of infective microorganism by assorted attacks in the production of bio-hydrolysate. During the fond regard, challenge trial was assigned to project the taint of Bacillus Cereus at certain degree in the beginning of Plant protein Koji hydrolysis procedure.
Work Nature and Scope
The work nature of this undertaking is chiefly laboratory analysis and pilot simulation.
At the beginning of the fond regard, developing on general microbiological techniques and the operation of laboratory equipment were conducted. After readying for background cognition, laboratory graduated table hydrolysis tallies were started on the suppression of general pathogen growing, following with microbiological analysis of the agitation. Many other undertakings were undertaken during the internship period. Nevertheless, minor undertakings that are of low relevancy to chief range of will non be discussed in inside informations in this study.
The fond regard lasted 22 hebdomads from 11th Jan 2010 to 12th Jun 2010.
REVIEW OF THEORY AND PREVIOUS WORK
Literature reappraisal on Agitation
Agitation, one of the oldest methods for nutrient processing, is cardinally of import to the nutrient industry as it can be considered as a desirable microbic activity in nutrients. Traditionally, agitation was used as a preservation technique for natural nutrient stuff. After the agitation, the merchandise normally has a much longer shelf-life than the fresh 1. Fermented nutrient merchandises such as staff of life, beer, vino, soy sauce, yogurt, and cheese have been known for a long clip.
Preservation of fermented nutrients depends on the rules of oxidization of saccharides and the related derived functions to bring forth end-products – by and large acids, intoxicant and C dioxide. As a consequence of partially oxidization, the nutrient retains sufficient energy potency to be nutritionary benefit to the consumer.
During the agitation procedure by nutrient class ( lactic acid ) bacterium or barms, nutrient safety can be improved by the production of ( lactic ) acid or ethyl alcohol by these microorganisms. The conditions generated by the agitation are of import in guaranting the microbiological safety of the merchandises. The available saccharides decrease after agitation procedure ; they are transformed into a scope of little organic molecules which exhibit antimicrobic activity, the most common being lactic, acetic, and propionic acids. In add-on to the production of these repressive primary metabolites, many other antimicrobic constituents can be formed by different protective microorganisms.
Furthermore, the end-products of saccharide katabolism by those bacteriums involved in agitation procedure contribute to the spirit, olfactory property and texture of the merchandises. Agitation may besides better the nutritionary quality of the nutrient by increasing digestibleness.
General debut to Koji
Koji was the major constituent of the hydrolysis substrate in the hydrolysis challenge trial conducted during the fond regard.
The word “ Koji ” means mouldy grains, which is derived from the Chinese character. The readying of Koji is regarded as an indispensable measure in agitation of assortment of fermented nutrients. By and large talking, the procedure is the solid substrate cultivation of molds to bring forth hydrolytic enzymes on seeds, for illustration, wheat or other cereals. Classs of enzymes inside Koji can catalyse the debasement of solid natural stuffs to soluble merchandises, supplying fermentable substrates for barm and bacteriums in the undermentioned agitation phase. Besides the enzymes, several chemicals necessary for the agitation procedure are besides produced during Koji doing. [ 2 ]
The advantages of Koji have generated legion researches taking to prospective application and technological betterment. It can be used to bring forth several of non-food merchandises such as antibiotics, every bit good as a measure to supply enzymes and chemicals for subsequent nutrient processing.
Both whole wheat and wheat flour can be normally used for the production of Koji, they are chosen as the natural stuffs due to the advantages listed below:
The less moisture content inside wheat inhibits the growing of unwanted microorganisms, while adequate for mould growing ;
Wheat aids in actuating the growing of Koji molds ;
Wheat serves as the precursors of sugars, intoxicants and organic acid ;
Wheat is a rich beginning of glutamic acid.
Normally whole wheat is foremost roasted and so coarsely crushed, or wheat flour which is by and large steamed before usage, it is to fulfill the undermentioned two contradictory factors:
To do the alpha-starch content or the enzymatic digestibleness amylum to a maximal degree ;
To do the enzymatic digestibleness of protein to a maximal degree.
2.2.3 Koji devising processs
The processs of Koji devising is described in figure 1 below:
Koji mould seed civilization 0.1-0.2 % weight of that of natural stuffs
Moisture content 40-45 %
Culturing mold ( Koji doing ) for 48-72 hours
Moisture content of Koji 25-35 % , pH=6.5-7.0
Figure – Koji doing flow chart
As illustrated in the figure, one time inoculated the stuff with a little sum of seed mold or the pure civilization of Aspergillus oryzae or A. sojae, the mixture is so spread to a big pierced chromium steel steel home base. The natural stuffs treated with heat are aerated for 2-3 yearss with temperature and wet controlled air, which comes up from the underside holes through the bed of fermenting stuff to give the proper conditions for mould cultivation and enzyme formation. The temperature of stuffs is kept at around 30oC, and wet content of the stuffs decreases from 40-45 % in the beginning of cultivation to 25-35 % after 2 or 3 yearss.
This procedure allows the mold to turn throughout the mass and supply the enzymes necessary to hydrolyse the protein, amylum and other components of the stuffs. Then, Koji, the mold cultured material devising is finished. [ 2 ]
Assortment of enzymes is involved in Koji, including amylase, cellulose, saccharase, lipase and peptidase. Among those enzymes, amylase plays an of import function in debasement of amylum and oligosaccharides to supply significant fermentable sugars for the undermentioned procedure ; the proteolytic enzyme has significance on solubilisation of protein into peptides and amino acid, ensuing in an addition of the soluble nitrogen output.
General microbiological techniques pattern
Before the start of the challenge trial on antibiosis of the protective being inoculated hydrolysate, it was of import to be good prepared for the experiment both in theory and practical countries. As a effect, general micro analysis techniques were learned from microbiologists in the microbiological research lab, functioning as a preliminary to the coming Plant protein Koji hydrolysis challenge trial. The chief techniques learned were listed below ; since the operation processs were confidential, inside informations will non be mentioned in this study.
Revival of bacteriums ( protective being and Bacillus Cereus ) in the frozen civilization ;
Preparation of starter medium, public presentation testing of civilization media ;
Enumeration of cultural microorganisms: home base count methods ;
Enteriobacteriaceae Enumeration- application of Petri-film ;
Detection and numbering of presumptive Bacillus Cereus with MYP agar home bases ;
Use of selective agar home bases and broth to place kind of bacteriums.
Those micro techniques were good practiced by making the everyday agitation sample analysing work in the microbiological research lab.
Hydrolysis Challenge Test
The challenge trials were conducted to look into the reaction of Bacillus Cereus on protective being inoculated Plant protein Koji hydrolysis by projecting the taint of Bacillus Cereus at an initial degree of 103-104 cfu/g at the start of Plant protein Koji hydrolysis.
During the hydrolysis procedure, Protein works Koji serves as the substrate for hydrolysis ; as illustrated in the old portion, it is a mould-cultured stuff which allows the mold to turn throughout and provides the enzyme necessary to hydrolysis. The digestion of C hydrated oxide by the enzyme proved the sugar required to the protective beings for their ain usage. Protective beings were inoculated into the Koji substrate at the start of hydrolysis and so the procedure was carried out at a controlled temperature and pH.
The chief attending was paid to 2 sorts of bacteriums implicated in works Koji hydrolysis ; they were Enterobacteriaceae and Bacillus Cereuss.
Enterobacteriaceae is bacillar Gram-negative bacteriums ; most occur usually or pathogenically in bowels of worlds and other animate being. Enterobacteriaceae could be used as a hygiene index in rapid hydrolysis procedure, the initial count of which normally have to be kept at a low degree, so that its growing could be suppressed during Hydrolysis by lactic acid bacteriums. Therefore, it is of import to corroborate a good hygiene before each test, doing certain the hydrolysis armored combat vehicle was sallied. If non, the bacteriums will turn to a high count degree and may impact the procedure.
Bacillus Cereus is aerophilic endospore-forming bacillar Gram-positive bacteriums ; it is responsible for a minority of foodborne unwellnesss ( 2-5 % ) , doing terrible sickness, purging and diarrhoea. when the ingestion of nutrient incorporating more than 105 cfu/g feasible toxigenic B. Cereus, [ 4 ] it can bring forth preformed, heat-stable toxins ( one vomit toxin ( ETE ) and three different enterotoxins: HBL, Nhe, and EntK ) , giving rise to foodborne unwellness mentioned above.
Materials and methods
After related research and diaries were reading, be aftering for the challenge trial under the supervising of MS Or ChengCheng was initiated and approved. Several parametric quantities related to the executing of the experiments needed to be decided, such as the procedure operation conditions ( temperature and pH ) ; the concentration of the works protein Koji in the hydrolysis substrate ; initial sum of micro-organisms inoculated into the hydrolysate in each test, and so on. After treatment, the experiment parametric quantities were decided and introduced in the undermentioned parts.
Plant protein Koji +Water
Hydrolysis Flow diagram
Figure – Flow chart of Hydrolysis
Recipe of Hydrolysis substrate was showed in table 1:
Batch size ( Kg )
Plant protein weight ( Kg )
Water ( Kg )
Table – Recipe of Substrate
Equipment set up and Process description
2 5-Liter sterilized beakers with scaremonger were applied as hydrolysis armored combat vehicles ; Water bath with a broad temperature scope used to keep the system at 30oC. After readying of the hydrolysis substrate ( works protein Koji, H2O and protective being ) , Hydrolysis was operated in 30oC H2O bath for 72 hours, and the pH of the hydrolysate was set at 6.0 with accommodation by the 10 % -30 % Na hydroxide solution.
Bacillus Cereus: 10ml broth civilization in vaccination 108 to give the count of 103 -104 cfu/g of Koji substrate severally.
Approachs — Selection of parametric quantities
Protective being ( cfu/g )
Bacillus Cereus ( cfu/g )
Table -AAAAAAAA initial vaccination sum of microorganisms
After determination about the experiment parametric quantities had been made, it was bend to invent how to put to death the experiment. There were chiefly 2 questions presented in forepart: would Bacillus cereus multiply in the Hydrolysis system? If it survived and propagated in the Hydrolysis system, Could the protective being inoculated works Koji hydrolysate suppress the growing of Bacillus Cereus? It was indispensable to extinguish any other factors impacting the growing of Bacillus Cereuss, before look into the consequence of protective being on Bacillus Cereus.
Consequently, test 1 was conducted to look into whether Bacillus Cereuss can last and turn in works protein Koji substrate or non. After doing certain that this pathogen could populate in the Koji substrate, the undermentioned challenge trials look intoing the antimicrobic ability of the protective being were carried on.
Trial 2 was conducted as a control, in order to compare consequences, while test 3 and test 4 were to project the taint of Bacillus Cereus to carry through the aims of the trials. Repeating tests were done during the fond regard in order to reproduce the promising consequences.
Revived of bacterial — obtaining the feasible cells.
Revive of the protective being from frozen civilization to new stock ;
Revive of the B Cereus cocktail in TS dilutants, pureness and count cheque of the revived bacteriums.
Prepared inoculants for hydrolysis, the constituents of the inoculants consisted of wheat gluten Koji and H2O.
Set up equipments: sterilisation of fermentors, pH standardization, set parametric quantities of systems.
Observed the olfactory property and colour, recorded the temperature and pH throughout the procedure hourly.
Sampling and Microbiological analyses
Samples for micro analysis were taken at 0hr, 3hr, 5hr, 8 hour, 24 hour, 30 hour, 48 hour, 55 hour and 72hr to look into the count of bacteriums. The types of analysis conducted are listed below:
Entire home base count
Protective being count
Bacillus Cereus count
Consequences and Discussion
Since consequences of this undertaking are confidential, merely one set of informations will be mentioned in this study, the elaborate information is provided in the appendix.
Growth of Bacillus Cereus in Koji substrate:
Figure – Growth of Bacillus Cereus
The figure presented how Bacillus Cereuss would populate in works protein Koji substrate. With an initial count of 103cfu/g, it rose up to 105cfu/g during reproduction of cells and reached a concluding count of 104 cfu/g. This consequence bears out that Bacillus Cereuss can propagate in the Koji substrate.
Growth of protective being in hydrolysate:
Figure – Growth of protective being
This figure described how the protective being grew in Koji hydrolysate, with an initial vaccination degree of 106cfu/g to 107 cfu/g protective being into the Koji substrate, it grow to 109 cfu/g after 72 hours, and went through the slowdown stage, exponential stage and stationary stage of protective being during the hydrolysis procedure. These consequences showed that protective being could accommodate good to the new environment.
Growth of Enterobacteriaceae in protective being inoculated hydrolysate
Figure – Growth of EB in protective being inoculated Hydrolysate
As showed in this graph, Enterobacteriaceae grew at beginning of the procedure but its growing was suppressed after 30 hours. Enterobacteriaceae was used as a hygiene index of the procedure, and it does n’t digest to a low pH environment. Because of the organic acid produced during Rapid hydrolysis, the growing of Enterobacteriaceae will be restrained. In general, with a low initial count, and the vaccination of protective being, the count of Enterobacteriaceae was controlled under the consequence of organic acid, for the count was under the safety degree which is 105 cfu/g.
Growth of Bacillus Cereus in protective being inoculated hydrolysate
Figure – Growth of BC in protective being inoculated hydrolysate
This figure showed that Bacillus Cereus did n’t proliferate during the Plant Koji hydrolysis at 30oC, pH 6.0 ; in add-on, its seeable count dropped to less than 100cfu/g after 30 hours. The possible cause taking to this consequence might be the organic acid or other molecules generated by protective being in the class of hydrolysis.
Other observations: Aroma and colour of the hydrolysate
Throughout the hydrolysis, it was observed that the olfactory property and colour of the hydrolysate was different between good covered batches and approximately covered 1s. Hypothesis was made that, oxygen degree in the hydrolysis procedure had close relationship with the metamorphosiss of micro-organism take parting in hydrolysis, taking to an consequence on the olfactory property and colour. Further tests were needed to be carried out as to analyze on this point.
Other Activities Performed
The challenge trials were non running all the clip, when there was no particular undertakings assigned, I was chiefly making the microbiological analysis of agitation samples and prepared the female parent starter civilization for the pilot works tests. I besides helped in the daily activities in the pilot works and assisted in the analyses carried out in the microbiological research labs.
Runing back over the Professional Placement period in Nestle , I have gained non merely in the societal and personal accomplishment, but besides the proficient accomplishments. In the beginning of the fond regard, the extended readings on diaries and books related to the undertaking provided a basic foundation for my tests carried out subsequently on, enabled me to understand the buttocks mechanisms, and helped me avoid doing much errors throughout carry oning the challenge trials, hence it was truly indispensable to make the literature research portion.
The 2nd portion of my fond regard chiefly consists of running the research lab graduated table rapid hydrolysis and the micro analysis work. Operation of the fermentors has enabled me to recognize the struggles of theoretical cognition and practical operation restrictions. Furthermore, beyond understanding the mechanism behind the procedure, I have besides learnt to cultivate a sense of duty for myself by invariably practising safety and hygiene in the research labs.
My supervisor emphasizes on independent acquisition and encourages me to be motivated in carry oning my ain research. She ne’er fails to explicate to me whenever I had uncertainties. The frequent treatments with the agitation squad has widened my positions, besides improved my analytical and communicating accomplishments.
In the class of my fond regard, I have received much aid from the staff in Nestle . Their tolerance and forbearance on clear uping my uncertainties enabled me to heighten accomplishments and cognition.
These 22 hebdomads of my attachment programme in Nestle R & A ; D Center has provided me with much penetration into the commercial nutrient industry where theory meets practicality. Bing able to witness the transmutation of planned tests on paper to existent pilot works tests makes my mentality brighter. Aiming to formalize the antimicrobic ability of the protective being inoculated Hydrolysate, the undertaking I have done in Nestle was a measure frontward in the ceaseless pursue towards the optimisation of the industrial procedure. Furthermore, the exposure to research lab work proved to be genuinely enriching. Besides the wealth of cognition acquired, I had gained valuable experience working in a multi-cultural environment.
In drumhead, 5 month work experience in Nestle is valuable and interesting ; it has boosted my involvement in the nutrient scientific discipline and engineering country while at the same clip supplying me the opportunity to use cognition learned in talks to the practical state of affairss.
Nestle , Retrieved 13 May 2010.
Brian J.B. ( 1985 ) Wood, Microbiology of Fermented Foods Volume 1 & A ; 2, Elsevier Applied scientific discipline publishing houses Ltd.
C. Outwehand and S. Versterland. ( 2004 ) . Antimicrobial Components From Lactic Acid Bacteria. Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Kathleen T.R. & A ; Reginald W.B, ( 2003 ) . Bacillus cereus. Marcel Dekker, Inc.