Network Routing Protocols: Matter of Choice? Essay

Narten, T., Internet Routing, Department of Computer Sciences, Purdue University, ACM 089791-332-9/89/0009/0271

This paper examines the routing information protocols used by different Internet gateways to develop routing tables in the routers of component networks with the DARPA Internet as the case study. In 1989 DARPA was and is still one of the largest existing networks with an estimated 60,000 hosts. The paper examines the functionalities of different routing protocols and attempts to highlight their strengths and weaknesses. It also examines how the protocols interact with each other.

Written in the very early days of the advent of the Internet, the paper traces the evolution of routing from the stage of the Internet with its single ARPANET backbone to the latter stages of multi-network convergence.

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The significance of the paper to the present study lies in the fact that many of the fundamental aspects of routing have remained the same even though there has been far-reaching development in technology.

Written by a faculty of the Department of Computer Sciences of the Purdue University this is a peer reviewed paper published by ACM, and therefore maintains an industry-reliable standard.

Levchenko, K., Voelker, G., M., Paturi, R., Savage, S., 2008, XL: An Efficient Network Routing Algorithm

This paper presents a new link-state routing algorithm termed the Approximate Link State (XL). The aim of XL is to increase routing efficiency by suppressing updates from other parts of the network. In presenting their case, the authors of the paper go through the process of routing in detail. They examine the many factors that affect routing efficiency in different routing protocols. The paper presents a simulated case study to establish the superiority of XL over other link state and distance-vector algorithms.

For the purpose of the present paper, it provides a good comparative analysis of the different routing protocols. It tries to find the best way for one point to another in a network, which is the basic objective of any routing process.

This academic paper is peer-reviewed and published by ACM. It has been written by academicians of the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California. The quality pf the paper is also assured by its logical analysis and technical grounding.

Balchunas, A., 2007, Static Vs Dynamic Routing

This paper provides a very simple and practical comparison between static and dynamic routing protocols. Starting with the basic concepts of static and dynamic routing, it explains how the two differs at the level of updating of routing tables. The paper then examines the comparative advantages and disadvantages of static routing on one hand and dynamic routing as a whole on the other.

The paper then explains the concepts of two distinct categories of dynamic routing protocols viz. Distance-Vector protocols and Link State protocols. It gives the characteristics of both the categories of dynamic routing protocols and makes a comparative analysis of their strengths and weaknesses vis-à-vis static routing.

The author is a network professional and consultant who has written the paper based on his practical experience in networking. His website is a constant point of reference for network professionals all over the world. Hence, though the paper is not peer reviewed the authenticity and quality of its content can be vouched for.

Cisco 1, 2002, Routing Basics, Chapter 5, Routing Components, Internetworking Technologies Handbook

This is a Cisco study material that provides elaborate information on the basic and fundamental concepts of routing. It starts by defining routing and goes on to introduce the reader with the different components of routing such as path determination and switching. The different types of routing algorithms are explained in detail. These algorithms are categorized and compared on the basis of their functional characteristics as Static versus Dynamic, Single-path versus Multi-path, Flat versus Hierarchical, Host-Intelligent versus Router-Intelligent, Inter-domain versus Intra-domain, and Link-State versus Distance-Vector.

The content also introduces the concepts of routing metrics and network protocol, while at the same time differentiating between routed protocols and routing protocols.

Cisco is acknowledged as a leader in networking technology. This study material has been prepared for their network certification courses, and therefore conforms to a high degree of quality and reliability.

Cisco2, 2007, Introduction to Dynamic Routing Protocols, Chapter 3, Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

 This is a Cisco study material which goes into dynamic routing protocols in greater details. It defines the role of dynamic routing protocols in the context of modern network design. It looks into how routing protocols are classified into different categories such as Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP) or Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGP), Distance-vector or Link-State and Classful or Classless.

The material discusses metrics, and how different metrics are use3d by different dynamic routing protocols.  It then goes on to explain how the administrative distance of a route is determined, and highlights the importance of route determination in the routing process. Thereafter, the routing table along with its different elements is described in detail. Finally the paper explains how subnetting schemes can be devised at the face of real constraints.

Being a course material for Cisco CCNE certification, the quality o the paper is beyond doubt.

Cisco 3, 2000, Introduction to Routing Protocols, Networkers, Cisco System

This is a standard Cisco presentation that encapsulates all important elements of routing protocols in the form of easily-comprehensible presentation points. It defines IP and IPX Addressing concepts, Generic Routing Concepts, Specific Routing protocols and Static and Default routes. The presentation illustratively describes how the optimal path can be determined in routing, based on location represented by IP address. It defines host addresses and subnet addressing. In generic routing concepts it introduces convergence. Load balancing, Holddown, Split Horizon and Metric.

Different types of routing protocols are highlighted after initially defining the specified goals of routing protocols. Significant points of different dynamic routing protocols such as RIP, IGRP, OSPF, OS-IS, BGP, etc. are brought to the fore. The applicability of different routing protocols in different network conditions and circumstances is also summarized comprehensively.

This presentation from Cisco helps the student in easily grasping the finer points routing protocols. As a leader in the industry, Cisco ensures that the material is of high technical quality.

Cain, B., 2000, Fast Link State Flooding, Nortel Networks

This paper looks at the deficiency of link-state routing protocols in not being able to provide fast enough post-failure convergence to cope with the demand of high network availability and fault-tolerant behavior that are viewed as critical network requirements. The paper states that though link-state protocols such as OSPF and IS-IS are used by Internet Service Providers for inter-domain routing, and are robust for route distribution, their inability to converge fast enough after failure poses a big performance problem. The paper then goes on to propose a solution in the form of Fast LSU Flooding which enables faster convergence due to faster flooding of link state information.

 In its introduction, the paper provides a very good overview on the importance of high availability and also on the functional process of link-state routing.

This is a peer reviewed paper of Nortel Networks which is one of the acknowledged market leaders in network technologies. It has been published by IEEE and would therefore conform to an acceptable quality standard.

Doyle, J., 2001, Dynamic Routing Protocols

This paper is from a Cisco publication and presents elaborate, easy-to-understand information on all aspects of dynamic routing protocols. It starts with the basics of routing protocols such as how a path is determined with the help of metrics, and defines elements such as hop-count, bandwidth, load, convergence and load balancing. The article then goes on to describe distance vector protocols and link-state routing protocols along with the different algorithms. Common characteristics of distance-vector protocols such as periodic updates, neighbors, broadcast updates, routing by rumor, split horizon, hold-down timers, triggered updates, asynchronous updates and route invalidation timers are introduced; while in kink-state protocols characteristics such as differing concept of neighbors, link state flooding, sequence numbers, aging and link state database are highlighted.

Finally the article discusses the choice between static and dynamic routing protocols in different network environments.

This article is part of a Cisco publication which has been published in a recognized technical website relating to network technologies, and can therefore be taken to be of acceptable technical quality.

Chatzigianakis, J., Kokkinos, P., Zaroliagis, C., 2006, Routing Protocols for Efficient Communication in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks, IST Programme for European Union

This paper discusses the design of routing protocols for ad-hoc mobile networks. It demonstrates the significance of user mobility rates on the basis the route creation and maintenance approach and ‘support’ approach that forces selected hosts to move so that they can act as helpers for message delivery. The paper presents the findings of a simulation study of three routing protocols two using the first approach and one using the second approach. Based on these findings two new routing protocols are designed, implemented and tested. It is found that the two new protocols which are a synthesis of the original three simulated protocols show enhanced performance, overcoming the deficiencies of the original protocols.

The paper offers an interesting insight into how routing protocols work in modern mobile networks, and takes the reader a step ahead into the world of dynamic routing protocols.

The quality of the paper is assured as it is a peer reviewed paper written by academicians of the Computer Technology Institute and has been published ACM.

CSE, 2008, Routing and Congestion Control, Version2, IIT Kharagpur, India

This is a study module of computer science engineering of the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT). The module starts with an introduction on routing and its necessity, making the reader understand why exactly routing is required in a network. It provides information of the classification of different types of routers and different routing algorithm metrics. Routers are classified on the basis of their routing algorithms as static versus adaptive, single-path versus multi-path, intra-domain versus inter-domain, flat versus hierarchical, link-state versus distance-vector, and host-intelligent versus router-intelligent.

The study module gives an understanding of the desirable properties of routing, and then goes on to describe static or fixed routing and the process of flooding.

The technical quality of content is assured as it is the study module of India’s premier technology institution which is recognized globally.