Ophthalmologists and safer techniques for cataract and

            Ophthalmologists are physicians who
specialize in eye conditions and diseases. They are often referred to as an eye
physician, surgeon, oculist and an eye doctor. These physicians study the
conditions and diseases for three to six years post medical school and medical placements
before they can take their examinations set by the Royal College of Physicians
and Surgeons of Canada. Once an Ophthalmologist is qualified; they become a
part of the general medical team. Not only do they diagnose diseases and conditions
of the eye, but they also help in diagnosing many broad medical issues.

In the 1800’s Henry Howard of The Montreal Eye and
Ear institution was likely one of the first doctors in Canada to limit his
practice to the eyes. Henry Howard wrote a book in 1850, called The Anatomy,
Physiology and Pathology of the Eye. This book was based on his four years of
practicing in Montreal.  The Anatomy,
Physiology and Pathology of the Eye was published before the invention of the
ophthalmoscope in 1851. This instrument is used for visually examining the eye,
it is small and hand held. It allows for doctors to see the retina and optic
nerve, which are extensions of the brain.

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            In 1922, Dr. W. Wright founded the
use of fascia lata (leg tissue) for the repair of droopy eyelids. This manner
is still in practice today. The Canadian Ophthalmology Society was formed in
October of 1937; although it was not until the early 1940’s that Dr. W. Wright
at the University of Toronto created the first in-Canada training program for
eye physicians. Ophthalmologists take a person’s history to find out if the
symptoms will relate to a local eye disease or manifestations of pathogens
elsewhere in the body. These can include a stroke, brain tumor, diabetes, hypertension,
rheumatic disease, or cancer.  


Advances of clinical data about contact lenses originate
from Canada to all over the world. Surgically modifying the profile of the eye
to reduce or get rid of the need for glasses was founded in Canada, and
physicians from all over the world have travelled to here because Canadians
have the leading role in initiation of laser refractive surgery. Canadians have
continued in inventing newer and safer techniques for cataract and lens
implantation surgery. Newer techniques that are used for the findings of
glaucoma with the use of technology of the optic nerve head is being produced
in Canada for use all over the world.

The University of Toronto has enlightened us to the
physiology of a range of forms of glaucoma. A three-dimensional ultrasound of
the eyeball and trajectory has been urbanized in London at the University of
Western Ontario and allows physicians to imagine, take measurements and follow
intraocular and orbital tumors so that these can be treated optimally and
safely without the early stages of surgery. This also allows the
Ophthalmologists to plan intraocular surgery more directly and efficiently.