Post-Soviet Demographic Paradoxes: Ethnic Differences in Marriage and Fertility in Kazakhstan Essay

The end of this research is to analyse the minority group position hypothesis sing specific phases of the family-building procedure for different sort of states. but they had stopped on the Middle East and Central Asia. These states has been considered by Agadjanian in 1999 old ages. Gore & A ; Carlson in 2008. The hypothesis posits an interaction consequence between ethnicity on the one manus and instruction or other steps of socioeconomic position on the other manus.

And besides they respect to the timing and strength of each phase of the generative rhythm – foremost matrimony. first birth interval. 2nd birth interval and so on and finally completed household size. This interaction between ethnicity and instruction can look in one or both of two partial signifiers. First. disadvantaged minority groups within a society may exhibit earlier matrimony. shorter birth intervals. and subsequent higher degrees of birthrate than the bulk population.

This higher birthrate at the “bottom” of the society has been interpreted diversely as the consequence of out of use surrogate chances. or as continuity of a separate minority group subculture stressing pronatalist norms. Second. elites among such minority groups may exhibit ulterior matrimony. longer birth intervals. and later lower degrees of birthrate than the bulk population. This has been interpreted as position anxiousness of these minority elites in the face of possible favoritism from the bulk.

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The minority group position hypothesis was foremost developed with regard to race/ethnic individuality within the United States but has later been applied to a broad scope of cultural minorities within national populations in many parts of the universe. With regard to Central Asia. Agadjanian has explored this hypothesis in Kazakhstan and concluded that forms of childbearing at that place do non suit the hypothesis good.

On the other manus. Gore and Carlson have late demonstrated that the hypothesis describes matrimony forms of cultural Kurds compared to the bulk population in nearby Turkey highly good. with both signifiers of the consequence clearly identifiable. This paper uses grounds from the 1995 and 1999 Kazakh Demographic and Health Surveys to analyze the timing of matrimony for two typical groups within the population of Kazakhstan.

We follow Agadjanian in uniting cultural Russians with other European groups and comparing them to the cultural Kazakh population in the state. and besides in excepting little cultural sliver groups from other Cardinal Asiatic states ( Uzbeks. Kyrgyz. etc ) from the analysis [ 1 ] . We concentrate on matrimony timing in order to most closely retroflex the work of Gore and Carlson for Turkey. and besides because Agadjanian has demonstrated that virtually all births in Kazakhstan for these samples of adult females occurred within and shortly after matrimony.

Since matrimony therefore constitutes a dependable marker for the timing of the first measure along the way of reproduction. it makes sense to get down analysis at that point. Agadjanian ( 1999 ) has treated this issue of matrimony timing in Kazakhstan in a old article. but that analysis completed some old ages ago did non affect event history analysis. and besides did non specifically analyze the hypothesized interaction consequence between instruction and ethnicity [ 2 ] .

Kazakhstan unambiguously raises an unusual theoretical issue about the minority group position hypothesis. because it is non instantly obvious which of the cultural populations in the state should be regarded as the “disadvantaged minority” in footings of expected effects for timing of generative behaviour. Some grounds shows that the cultural Russian and more by and large. the European section of the population historically appropriated a disproportional portion of the higher-status businesss after immigrating into Kazakhstan in response to Russian/Soviet relocation enterprises.

However. other research has demonstrated a concentration of cultural Kazakhs in higher instruction and some other Fieldss. Similarly. the numerical balance of these groups in the population has shifted in recent decennaries. and has ever been close para in footings of laterality by sheer Numberss. For these grounds we do non presume at the beginning which group should be regarded as the “minority” group for measuring the hypothesis. but instead analyze the empirical consequences for hints on this inquiry.

Agadjanian has proposed and utilized in several surveies a utile division of the cultural Kazakh population into two groups described as more or less “russified” based on choice of interview linguistic communication by these respondents at the clip of each study those who chose to be interviewed in Russian are compared to those who chose the Kazakh linguistic communication for the study interviews. 3 ] These groups allow farther trials of the minority group position hypothesis. specifically for the most deprived members of the population. in footings of measuring the alternate hypotheses of out of use chances versus continuity of prontalist subcultures as accounts for higher birthrate.

Although the correspondence between cultural and spiritual self-identification is highly strong in these studies about all Russians identify themselves as Orthodox and about all Kazakhs identify themselves as Moslem. regardless of linguistic communication or other differences the correspondence is non perfect and we besides examine spiritual individuality as an alternate manner of operationalizing ethnicity in analyzing the minority group position hypothesis. And at the terminal of my critical essay I would wish to state some interesting facts that happened in my state. The Kazakhs attach great significance to the birth and elevation of kids.

A Kazakh household is non considered happy without kids. particularly sons—the continuers of the kin. There are many imposts and ceremonials associated with birth and elevation of kids. These imposts arose from centuries of experiences and from the Kazakh worldview. Therefore. they protected a pregnant adult female from the evil oculus with the assistance of talismans and did non let her to go forth the house entirely at dark ; arms. wolves’ dentition. eagles’ measures. and owl talons were out wherever she lived. All this was necessary to protect her from impure forces. The pregnant adult female herself had to detect a battalion of tabu.

In order non to embroil the child’s umbilical cord. for illustration. she could non step over the staff for raising the dome of the yurt ( bakan ) . the device for catching Equus caballuss ( kuruk ) . rope ( arkan ) . and many other points. She was besides out to eat camel meat because it was thought that. were she to make so. she would transport her kid for 12 months. like a she-camel. Kazakhs protect pregnant adult females from heavy labour. particularly in the ulterior months. Kazakhs carefully guard the adult female and kid during the existent birth and the first 40 yearss thenceforth. which are regarded as particularly unsafe for the babe.

Assorted rites are followed—placing the kid in the cradle on the 7th twenty-four hours. for illustration: the fortieth twenty-four hours after birth is seen as particularly gay because the danger is deemed to hold passed. Merely adult females gather at this jubilation. Kazakhs accustom kids to work from an early age. They teach a male child to sit a Equus caballus at age 3 and to be given it and other farm animal at age 5 or 6. The shave ceremonial. strongly upheld in modern times. is conducted when a male child has reached age 3 to 10. Girls are taught to run up. embroider. and carry out other family activities.

In the yesteryear. Kazakhs believed that at age 13 to 15 they were ready for independent life and could hold their ain household ; at present misss marry at age 16 to 18. The brief ceremonial at the enrollment office is called a AHAZH. The AHAZH besides features a emanation of autos decorated in threads. which stops to take images along the manner. In the metropolis of Turkistan in southern Kazakhstan. the exposure must include one of the twosome at the Yasawi Shrine. For many progressive households the AHAZH has about replaced both the Neke Qiyu and the betashar.

The spiritual portion of the Kazakh nuptials ceremonial is called Neke Qiyu. The nuptials procedure may take many hebdomads and even months to finish. This is because a Kazakh matrimony. like matrimonies in most Muslim societies. involves a contract between households which requires dialogue. The Neke Qiyu is a little part of the whole. and normally takes about a half an hr to finish. The Neke Qiyu normally takes topographic point on the eventide of the twenty-four hours the bride is revealed to her groom’s household.

This gay ceremonial is calledbetashar or “revealing of the face. After she shows regard to her groom’s household. the head covering is lifted and the bride receives a buss from her mother-in-law [ 4 ] . The mother-in-law so puts a white scarf on her caput to typify her matrimonial position and so welcomes her into the groom’s household. After several hours a banqueting. a mullah arrives. A Mullah is a instructor of Islam who knows how to declaim the Quran [ 5 ] . He performs the Neke Qiyu. Even though the betashar is performed outside in the garden in the presence of many relations and friends. the Neke Qiyu is performed inside with close relations merely.

The Mullah and the twosome sit confronting one another. He briefly recites some poetries from the Quran and asks the twosome to squeal the religion of Islam. When this ceremonial is done. the twosome must travel and register their matrimony at the province register office. a pattern introduced in the Soviet period. Among mobile Kazakhs the little. single household predominated. dwelling. as a regulation. of a married twosome. their single kids. and aged parents. In conformity with usage. the oldest boy was able to get married foremost. followed by the other boies in falling order of age.

The male parent allotted farm animal to the married boy and in this manner created a new family. Harmonizing to the ancient imposts of the minorat. the youngest boy was non allotted a family. even after matrimony. He remained the inheritor to the hereditary fireplace. Among the seminomadic and settled Kazakhs. there were drawn-out households in which several closely related households lived in one family. Normally this was the household of the caput of the family. every bit good as his married boies. and. after his decease. the households of his married brothers.

As a regulation. nevertheless. after the decease of the family maestro. the married brothers parted company. The girls went to populate with the households of their hubbies after matrimony. Elementss of patriarchal dealingss were preserved in certain ways. nevertheless. Married boies. even when they had their ain single families. did non interrupt ties with the paternal family wholly. Many labour-intensive undertakings. such as pasturing of farm animal. shearing of sheep. readying of felt. and so on. were accomplished through the attempts of several families with close dealingss along paternal lines.

This was particularly of import in supporting farm animal and grazing lands from the invasion of others. Such a fusion of households. the footing of affinity ties. is called in the literature a “family-kin” group. In Kazakh. these groupings are called bir ata baralary ( kids of one male parent ) . If a family-kin group was called Koshenbaralary. for illustration. so their ascendant was called Koshen. and the households of this group had caputs who were grandsons and great-grandsons of Koshen. Among the Kazakhs. such family-kin groups formed communities. The caputs of households were considered near relatives up to the 4th or 5th coevals.