analysis: Evaluation of the scientific contribution to the project
project`s bullet points
* Ongoing and flexible risk assessment procedure
(before and after project implementation)
* Considering the accumulative impact of
simultaneously implemented multiple projects
*Changing local community`s perception of
possibility of compensation of ecosystem disasters after happening
* Customary law establishment as a new way of going
out of possible conflicts
* Social impact assessment is important as
environmental impact assessment
project`s base (logic and background)
This project (ARRAN) established on the base of the strategy
of Norway government in 2009 to build new blocks in the North to reference 2011
United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. The
project concentrated on the evaluation of ethical guidelines application to
extractive industries related to the indigenous people of northern Norway and
Russia. The project leader was a professor at the Scott Polar Research
Institute, University of Cambridge and UiT the Arctic University of Tromsø; and
North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk. The study conducted to know that how
UN guideline principals can apply in Arctic oil, gas, and mining companies. Three
main principals introduced on the UN guideline as this project`s base are the
responsibility of industry, the responsibility of the state, and redress
accessibility with great stress on damage prevention by risk assessment, and
continuous effort for self-correction.
This project extended ethical criteria related to
the native people of Arctic, living in the zone of oil, gas, and mine
exploitation to resolve existing conflicts between them and mining companies. The
most of considered guidelines were about ethics and social responsibility, dialogue
among partners, risk management, and sustainability.
material and method of doing the project (scientific approach)
The researchers performed field work to collect the
local community data by means of native local language speaker anthropologists,
lawyers, and politicians that some of them are indigenous. The project`s
materials were the map of the local society and mining locations, extraction
companies working site`s information, various and countable local organizations
data, and the background and history of the relationship between industries and
local people. Also, they collected the dataset for evaluation of social impacts
of exploitation projects such as social anxiety and tension rate, and local
community involvement ratio.
The project`s overview
The project tried to find a way to lead the
indigenous people and exploitation companies to the common ground. Resource
exploitation can be locally and environmentally destructive but it can bring economic
growth, welfare, and healthcare to the local community. This project goal is
how we can find the balance between these two beneficiary groups.
They found out that indigenous people rights are not
considered properly by decision makers and politicians, while we have detailed standards
and regulations about these rights.
They suggest that we need to take strategic
comprehensive view approach to the entire resource extraction procedure, not
just pay attention to the local smaller actions to reach sustainable development,
socially and environmentally.
They discovered that governmental obligations and
regulation don`t force the extraction industries to consult with local
countable bodies before starting any exploration mission. The initial
consultation with local players can significantly reduce subsequent local community
Beside established regulation, the international
contractor needs to produce social and local management communication plan for
initial steps before starting a project. They addressed that the risk
assessment should be ongoing work with flexibility to accommodate new-raised
The main conflict and tension reason was neglecting
the accumulative impact of simultaneously implemented multiple projects. It is
important to evaluate all ongoing project`s accumulative impacts on the local
people resilience and cooperation threshold instead of focusing on one project
It is necessary to change the local community’s
perception of the possible compensation of ecosystem catastrophes after
happening. The industrial part should minimize their adverse impacts of
development through consultation and cooperation with local state and community
to proceed to the sustainable growth. They found out that under the same
legislation inside the one country, local conditions can lead to the completely
The outcomes of this project published in the structure
of 22 papers about the assessment of related international ethical criteria and
standards, indigenous people right.
The ranking of the active companies in the study
area revealed malfunctioning of the majority of them to follow the indigenous
One of the main conflicts in some part of Norway (Guovdageaidnu/Kautokeino) was the local rejection of copper mining
for the conservation of reindeer herds (Vitebsky and
The Russian official law has an obligation for industries to care about
reindeer owners by paying salary but it didn`t perform properly (Novikova, 2016). The suggested solution was the establishment of
industrial bases offshore, to decrease adverse impact on Sami reindeer herders.
Another main conflict was protest against oil pollution
raised after many years of oil exploitation.
The quality and type of relationship between
industry and local society defined by individual agreements can play an
important role to diminish both mentioned conflicts. It worked effectively in
some regions of the study area.
Indigenous people holy regions were the most
challenging areas raising conflicts. The offshore base industrial projects
would be one of the solutions.
The project involved five main principals to address
1- Avoiding damage, 2- Continuous dialog and
consultation, 3- Sharing of all benefits, 4- Easy access to health care 5- Obtaining
initial agreement with local society before any implementation. The NO should
be respected in this phase.
suggestion, and critics
We can conclude from the base of outcomes of this
project that, we have to improve and deepen our explanation about international
laws and the way of performing them in proper shape. The local government has
to write obligatory statements inside the contract of extraction companies for
benefit of indigenous people rights before any exploitation license issuance. The
companies should provide more care and resilience on the ground to native
people rights and traditional daily lifestyle beyond official obligations.
Following successful similar experiments like the implementation
of Canadian and US sustainable mining regulations at Argentina and Botswana can
The local communities need to establish their own
standards and regulation about their expectations and priorities. Ongoing
revision of agreement is necessary in case of changing the important parts of
the project. Local and social impact assessment should be taken into
consideration as the environmental impact assessment. The long-term
sustainability overview should follow in all steps of resources extraction by
companies. The practice of using customary law should be taken into
consideration when ordinary and black-letter regulation doesn`t work (Wilson et al., 2017).
It seems that this project needs to more
contribution of indigenous people by questionnaire approach survey. The
cooperation of scientists and authorities from local society could not reflect
the true social reflection of the company’s developmental actions.