Since, 1860s there has been development of route building by first debut of railroad system as a agency of goods conveyance in Mauritius. However, in 1964s railroad system was stopped due to relentless unprofitableness and there was the debut of motorised conveyance. There has been building of route webs to get by with the increasing route traffic congestion like goods vehicles, coachs, autos, motor etc. There are 2 066 kilometer of roads in Mauritius in which 48.5 % are chief roads, 28.7 % are secondary roads, 3.6 % are expresswaies and the staying 19.2 % are made up of other types of roads. Three major route building companies involved in the decongestion of roads in Mauritius viz. Rehm-Grinaker Construction Co. Ltd, Gamma Civic Ltd and Colas ( Maurice ) Ltee.
1.2 COLAS IN MAURITIUS
Genus colas were established in Mauritius since 1986 as ( A & A ; J Maurel Construction Limitee ) which is now registered as Colas ( Maurice ) Limitee since June 2009. It is a leader in the building and care of route, air, rail and conveyance substructure, urban development undertakings and recreational installations. Colas ( Maurice ) Ltee has played a important function in the development of the national route webs in Mauritius and Rodrigues.
1.3 COLAS ( MAURICE ) LTEE ROAD CONSTRUCTION
Colas foremost came with 1 Asphalt Plant for the route building in Mauritius as the chief undertakings were given largely to other companies. Now Colas ( Maurice ) Ltee has 4 Asphalt Plant in operation in Mauritius and as a consequence of its long established experience and trustiness in route building, Colas ( Maurice ) Ltee had been awarded some chief contracts which are as follows:
Realignment of Laventure Road,
Construction of Gros Bois – Mare D’Albert Link Road,
Second Carriageway, Pamplemousses to Forbach,
Widening of Motorway M1 between Pailles and Caudan
Construction of Port Louis Ring Road- Phase 1 from Montebello to Guibies
With the good completion of these major undertakings, Colas ( Maurice ) Ltee is now with an on-going building of the Terre Rouge-Verdun-Trianon Link Road and the Runway and Parallel Taxiway at the Airport of Mauritius. The company has set up a new hot mix Asphalt Plant different from the other 3 Asphalt Plant in Plaine Magnien on a site following to a rock suppression works belonging to United Basalt Product Ltd ( UBP ) . The Asphalt Plant there is really bring forthing for the building of the Runway of the Airport and it receives sums from the rock suppression works nearby which is assisting a batch to finish the undertaking right on clip.
1.4 INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH AND SAFETY
The Occupational Safety, Health & A ; Welfare Act 1988 was abrogation and replace by Occupational Safety and Health Act 2005 in October 2005 as the dynamism of the universe of work necessitates a changeless examination of the jurisprudence. The OSHA 2005 aims at “ consolidating and widening the range of statute law on safety, wellness and public assistance of employees at work ” . This Act unreservedly binds the State, intending it is applicable constantly in the populace sector.
However this Act is non yet in force ; it is expecting announcement. If it were to be enforced now, the authorities itself, as employer, would be in dispute due to the scarceness of Safety and Health Professionals at the minute.
Occupational safety and health administration 2005 is non much different from OSHWA 1988, except that it contains more luxuriant commissariats with respect to duty holders ‘ duties. Besides some inexplicit commissariats in the old jurisprudence have been rendered more expressed. For case there are specific commissariats with respect to put on the line appraisal, safety and wellness policy, vehicle lifts, escalators, manual handling operations and wellness surveillance of employees. The punishments for offenses have been reinforced.
Every workplace hazard exist which may do danger to the wellness and safety of employees. It is hence necessary that extenuating actions are taken to protect workers and other people who may be affected from these risky state of affairss. There are figure of control methods that can be used to undertake occupational jeopardies. Controling a jeopardy at its beginning is the first and best pick because this method will extinguish it from the topographic point of plants wholly or will insulate it from the workers. However, it is imperative to first of all identify the jeopardies and to take the needed action to cut down the hazard or extinguishing them. Risk Assessment is hence one indispensable constituent in the hierarchy of controls that can significantly cut down the figure of accidents and hurts in the workplace. Regardless of whether a workplace, a workshop or a company is involved, such an analysis allows to organize the hierarchal order of jeopardies depending their dimension and the efficient assignment of resources for precedence steps.
Risk appraisal implies the designation of all hazard factors within the system under scrutiny and the quantification of their dimension, based upon the combination between two parametric quantities: badness and frequence of the maximum possible effects for the human organic structure.
Management engagement is cardinal in continuing a wellness and safety status at work. OSHA ( 2005 ) places a legal responsibility on employer to supply a safe work scene. Harmonizing to subdivision 5 ( 1 ) of OSHA ( 2005 ) it states that “ Every employer shall, so far be moderately operable to guarantee the safety, wellness and public assistance of all his employees ” . An employer has the responsibilities under OSHA ( 2005 ) to measure hazards in the workplace. Hazard appraisals shall be carried out by employer so as all hazard is being identified and preventative steps are being taken.
1.5 RISKS IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
In building industry, it could be the likeliness of the happening of an event or a combination of events which occur during the whole procedure of the building that are hazardous. In the assorted definitions of hazard, there are many different ways of categorising hazard in a building industry. Some categorize hazard as external hazard and internal hazard and in more elaborate classs risk as political hazard, fiscal hazard, market hazard, societal hazard, safety hazard, etc. Since building plants have changed significantly over the past several old ages with the usage of new engineerings, it besides represents greater hazard than older 1s. Therefore, hazard appraisal is a tool to place those hazards in a undertaking and pull off it consequently with proper intervention.
Hazard is built-in and hard to cover with. Risk Management is a formal and orderly procedure of identifying, analysing and reacting to put on the line throughout the life-cycle of a certain building undertaking to put on the line riddance and control.
Some beginnings of hazard in building undertakings are:
Misconstruing of Contracts
Ill defined duties
Poor coordinated work
1.6 PROBLEM DEFINITION
The types of exposure to put on the line that an administration is faced with are wide-ranging and vary from one administration to another. These exposures could be the hazard of concern failure, the happening of major building accidents and administration hazards. It is desirable to understand and place the hazards every bit early as possible so that proper control can be implemented to retain peculiar hazards or to reassign them to minimise any likely negative facet they may hold.
As Colas is involved in many activities such as building of roads and edifices, Safety and Health is the built-in portion in the organisation. Most of their employees carry out their work on-site and while executing their activities, different types of jeopardies and accidents occurred which could be prevented by hazard appraisal. The employees are besides provided with PPE but they do non utilize it in a proper mode and for some among them, they are non comfy with the PPE. Risk Assessment plays a cardinal function in placing the types of jeopardies and urging steps to minimise or extinguish the hazard. The hazard registry shows that there is an addition in accidents on the asphalt works industry.
Table 1 Number of accidents
Figure 1 Number of accidents
Figure 1 represents the figure of accidents that usually occurred at Cola sites. As it can be found that every twelvemonth accident occurs and the highest figure of accidents occurred in 2010. The accidents are evidently in connexion to the figure of building undertakings given to the company and the direction committedness towards safety of employees. The figure of accidents until mid-year 2012 was found to be about 39 which could increase more by the terminal of the twelvemonth. Designation of the chief types of jeopardies and taking remedial steps is cardinal in cut downing the rate of accident.
1.7 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
1.7.1 Purposes of the undertaking
The chief purpose of this appraisal is to develop a hazard appraisal program while making studies and hazard appraisal in order to cut down the degree of jeopardies and accidents on the asphalt works industry.
1.7.2 Aims of the undertaking
Measure the effectivity of hazard appraisal in placing the hazard of an asphalt works industry for the building of the Parallel Taxiway at the Airport of Mauritius.
Analyze how hazard appraisal can cut down hazard, be cost effectual and increase productiveness.
To measure the type of wellness jeopardies involved in an asphalt works
To suggest recommendation based on the research findings so as to minimise the wellness jeopardies to employees.
In order to accomplish the purpose of this appraisal, and to assist the employees to hold a safe topographic point of work, these tools would be utile:
Datas aggregation through study, questionnaire, interview and observations,
To suggest steps for the hazards identified, do a hazard appraisal,
Risk appraisal matrix,
Datas analysis through SPSS package which is a Predictive analytics plan which helps an organisation to expect alteration to better results through planning and executions of schemes.
1.9 OUTLINE OF THESIS
Chapter 1 – Introduction
Road Construction in Mauritius, Colas in Mauritius, Colas Road Construction, Health and Safety in Mauritius, job definition, purposes and aims, proposed methodological analysis.
Chapter 2 – Company Profile
Genus colas Ltd ( International ) and Colas ( Mauritius ) Ltd, Structure of the company, description of the construction
Chapter 3 – Literature Reappraisal
Importance of a Health and Safety at work, OSHAS 18001, Concept of OSHAS18001, Hazards involved in an asphalt works industry, hazard designation, hazard appraisal and hazard control.
Chapter 4 – Research Methodology
Methodology ( hazard appraisal informations, questionnaire, interview ) and tools and techniques used, for illustration, hazard matrix.
Chapter 5 – Findingss and Analysis
Analysis of the hazard appraisal consequences through SPSS and reading of the consequences.
Chapter 6 – Recommendation
Discussion on the new hazard appraisal and proposed steps.
Chapter 7 – Decision
Has the proposed aims been achieved?
2.1 COLAS LTD INTERNATIONAL
The Colas Group International is a leader in the building and care of route, air, rail and nautical conveyance substructure, urban development undertakings and recreational installations. Colas internationally consist of 66,000 employees – half of them work in France – and a web of 800 net income centres and 1,400 production units runing in about 50 states on five continents. The Group carries out 110,000 undertakings each twelvemonth and in 2011, Colas posted 12.4 billion euros of amalgamate gross. The Group portion of net net income amounted to 336 million euros.
This concern histories for 80 % of gross which consists of three activities:
Construction and care of roads, main roads, airdrome tracks, port, industrial and logistics substructure, coach and ropewaies, urban conveyance and recreational installations, bike waies, and more.
Industry and recycling of building stuffs ( sums, emulsions, binders, asphalt mixes and ready-to-use concrete ) via an extended international web of preies and emulsion, asphalt and concrete workss ; industry and sale of bitumen.
Colas besides provides a wide scope of other road-related merchandises and services:
signage, safety and traffic direction systems
civil technology constructions and grapevines
sealing, cladding and roofing
edifice building, Restoration and deconstruction
railway substructure building, upgrading and care
2.2 COLAS ( MAURICE ) LTEE
Colas ( Maurice ) Ltee is a subordinate of the Colas Group runing since 30 old ages in Mauritius with its caput office in Coromandel, Colas has besides developed activities in Rodrigues Island. Road works is 70 % of its overall activity, edifice and civil technology 15 % and private contracts 15 % . Colas ( Maurice ) Ltee has set up a system of quality direction with aims for quality work, client satisfaction, and uninterrupted betterment of its public presentation. Colas is besides committed to portion its expertness by developing alumnuss, operators, Mauritanian applied scientists to new engineerings non yet used on the island.
With the push of the authorities ‘s main road undertakings and the overall economic development of the island, the activity of route building has become really strong since 2008. The RDA ( Road Development Authority ) is at the beginning of many advanced undertakings, and is now one of the chief clients of Colas ( Maurice ) Ltee. In add-on to the care of standard sizes undertakings on the bing route web, Colas has turned to the “ major undertakings ” where continuance of work exceeds 12 months. Spread throughout the island, they represent existent proficient challenges for the company.
Some of the major accomplishments of Colas ( Maurice ) Ltee during the past three old ages have been the building and completion of the Pamplemousses-Forbach Carriageway, the Triolet Bypass and the Phoenix Beau Songes Link Road. Based on its expertness and the efficiency of its work force, three of the island ‘s major infrastructural undertakings have been awarded to Colas ( Maurice ) Ltee: The Ring Road Phase 1 Pailles to Caudan, the Terre Rouge-Verdun-Trianon Link Road ( A First in Mauritius ) and the Runway and Parallel Taxiway at the Airport of Mauritius. Furthermore, Colas ( Maurice ) Ltee is besides take parting in the PPP ( Public Private Partnership ) undertaking for a better Mauritius.
2.3 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
2.3.1 Administrative Department
The administrative section elaborates and implements the information, communicating and fiscal direction systems that enable the strategic planning of the company. Genuine control unit, the administrative section history for conformity with local ordinance and ensures that internal processs are in line with the Group general policy.
184.108.40.206 The Accounting Department
The item figures of assorted operational and functional costs of the company reflect of the public presentation and profitableness of the company ; they explain its operation and steer it towards optimum development.
220.127.116.11 The Human Resources Department
Responsible for pull offing over 1000 employees, the enlisting, paysheet and conformity with societal ordinance, this section is a cardinal nexus in the running of the company.
18.104.22.168 The IT Department
With more than 120 connexion to the cyberspace web, this section assures the flow of information and links over 150 configured terminal across the island for the Cola section.
2.3.2 Divisional Manager of Building and Civil Department
Divisional Manager of Building and Civil Department helps to set up aims that define cardinal consequence countries of the Division and pass on to their staff. Furthermore, this section helps to fix and subject building undertaking budget estimations so as the manager can measure the undertaking and supply resources.
2.3.3 Divisional Manager Road, Workshop and Major Works.
Division Managers provide leading and aid to their squad members. They provide proficient way and work-related advice. They oversee, reappraisal and direct the actions of their squad members ‘ deadlines. Furthermore, they besides manage the communicating and ease inter-departmental cooperation and shared assignments and undertakings. They make certain that their employees run into their organisational ends and so as to supply high quality of service.
2.3.4 Health and Safety Department
Colas Mauritius reinforces its action towards the bar of work related accidents for all of its activity. Indeed, increase labour force and the enlisting of staff that are non familiar with site activity amplify the hazards of accidents. While profiting from the exchange of good patterns and experience of other subdivisions of the group, Colas Mauritius has defined a security policy adapted to its activities and to the specialnesss of the local environment.
With a uninterrupted frame of head, the frequence and gravitation of work related accidents are monitored via indexs so as to run into one-year marks. Action programs are implemented base on the appraisal of the hazards and the determination of the root causes of the work related accidents.
The amplification of the safety policy of Colas Mauritius is based on the specific wellness and safety recommendations: monthly “ safety negotiations ” , developing faculty ( route safety, scaffolding assembly, runing building equipment, handling of fire asphyxiators, etc. ) , heightening consciousness about the of import of personal safety equipment and safety audits.
Sites OF COLAS ( MAURICE ) LTEE
After the completion of the Ring Road Phase 1, Pailles to Caudan, the major undertakings that Colas is working on are the Terre Rouge-Verdun-Trianon Link Road which is a first in Mauritius and the Runway and Parallel Taxiway at the Airport of Mauritius. For these buildings, Colas is utilizing its ain Asphalt Plant where it produces the different types of asphalt needed with the mixture of bitumen and sums which it takes from UBP and Gamma. Colas has ever been puting its Asphalt Plant on the site where the rock suppression works is found and near the building sites so that it is easy for the burden and unloading of stuffs and asphalts.
PROBLEMS INVOLVING HEALTH AND SAFETY ON SITE
Construction workers are at hazard of exposure to assorted wellness jeopardies that can ensue in hurt, unwellness, disablement or even decease. Different types of wellness jeopardies are grouped as:
Chemical are fond in assortment of merchandises used at building sites. Workers may besides be exposed to chemicals generated during building activities and these jeopardies are: dusts, exhausts, liquids, gases, bluess and fibres ( solids ) . Physical jeopardies are different types of energy which may be risky to workers and these include: noise, quiver, temperature extremes and radiation. Biological jeopardies besides can do diseases or unwellnesss for illustration, bacteriums and viruses. Ergonomic jeopardies can do painful and disenabling hurts to articulations and musculuss and these occur from:
Heavy, frequent or awkward lifting
Using incorrect tools for a peculiar occupation or merely utilizing the tool improperly
Ergonomic jeopardies are the most often happening wellness jeopardies in building and the cause of most hurts.
The site chosen for this appraisal is the Runway and Parallel Taxiway at the Airport of Mauritius. Apart from route building, Colas besides provide extended airside capablenesss and expertness on all facets of airfield pavement building and care. Employees working at the Asphalt works industry of the Parallel Taxiway, they are exposed to many wellness jeopardies ensuing from their ain work every bit good as from nearby activities. For illustration, they are exposed to stuffs that can do serious unwellness and affect wellness in the long-run. Workers are besides exposed to resound, quiver, chemicals and more jeopardies on the site. These types of jeopardies and hazards should be prevented on building sites and this can be done by making a proper hazard appraisal.