Personal counseling also known as Psychotherapy is used by trained and qualified psychotherapists in aiding their patients or clients through intended interpersonal connection or relationship. The person’s sense of his or her well being is intended to be strengthen or boosted during psychotherapy. Several techniques are used based on communication, dialogue, observed relationship building, and relationship change. These are proposed to make better the patient or client’s mental health, and/or to improve one’s group relationships such as in one’s colleagues or family. Trained psychotherapists practice not just one single pure type but draws outlooks from several schools and perspectives.
The person-centered therapy is the one of the most popular and widely used models in psychotherapy. This model of therapy deems that human beings have the power and authority on their own and personal experiences. It also sees humans to be completely capable to fulfill their potential to grow however there may be adverse situations that will hinder their will for growth. In such technique, the psychotherapist creates an accommodating and non-judgmental environment through demonstrating empathy, realness, and unconditional positive regard to the client or patient whilst using a non-directive style (Seligman & Reichenberg, 2010). This model helps the patient to find his own solution to his problems. The psychotherapist simply serves as a facilitator rather than someone who drives and directs the patient. Psychotherapists give encouragements and help their patients to express their experiences and feelings. In such way it allows the patient to evaluate his problem through his own thoughts. Some critics argue that this model lacks structure and said that it provides conditional connection or relationship. Nonetheless this person-centered therapy has been proven to be amongst the most popular and effective treatment.
On the other hand, the rational emotive therapy is a psychotherapy technique that focuses on giving solutions to behavioral and emotional disturbances and problems. This technique perceives human beings to be sensibly hedonistic in such a way that they struggle to remain alive and attain some level of happiness. Similar to the person-centered therapy, this model also takes on the idea that human beings are prone to embracing illogical behaviors and beliefs which in turn stand in their way to achieve their purposes and goals (Ellis, 2001). This model’s difference from the person-centered therapy is on how the psychotherapists play a quite different role than the other one. In this treatment, the focus is to give out suggestive changes in thinking to the patient that will aid him to change his behavior and thus improve his condition. This therapy emphasizes shifting irrational thinking ways that cause the patient to become emotionally distress. An active therapy, the psychotherapist in this model disputes the irrational beliefs of the patient, explains the situation by reframing it, and often also uses role playing in the process.
Like all other approaches of psychotherapy, Reality therapy assumes that human beings have basic needs. In this model these certain needs are classified under survival, fun, freedom, power, and love and belonging. One of the most fundamental principle behind the reality therapy is that human act to meet these basic needs all the time whether they are aware of it or not. This technique gives focus on the present situation of the patient and on how he can create a better and brighter future. It is somehow similar to rational emotive therapy as it incorporates problem solving scheme to help people with their problems and troubles (Seligman & Reichenberg, 2010). And similar to person-centered therapy, it aids people to come up with solutions to their problems objectively.
There are a lot more models of psychotherapies that are being practiced at present. There are people skeptical about these psychotherapies and give out criticisms regarding these techniques. However, one must believe that social interactions with others are generally beneficial for human beings to be able to share and express their feelings and experiences.
Ellis, Albert. (2001). Feeling better, getting better, staying better. Impact Publishers
Seligman, L. & Reichenberg, L.W. (2010). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy. New Jersey: Pearson.