Tamarind Medicinal Uses And Properties Biology Essay

Tamarinds belong to the household of leguminous workss called Fabaceae, which means that they comprise of fruits with seeds enclosed within an encapsulated cod, flowers are bilaterally symmetrical with 5 petals and sepals, 10 stamens, 1 pistil and superior ovary. The Latin name or scientific name of the works is Tamarindus indica.

Tamarinds are tropical or semi-tropical evergreen trees that can make a maximal tallness of 80 pess, nevertheless most of the Tamarindus indica that grows in the tropical parts normally reaches a maximal tallness of 20 pess. The Tamarindus indica grows really easy and defy drouth for extended period of clip. The bark is thick and is normally brown in colour with heavy leaf that can frequently widen for a length of 20 to 35 pess.

Leafs are non shed intermittently but normally become brown in colour and autumn out during rough conditions such as hot dry season. The Tamarindus indica foliages are pinnate compound leaves with each being ellipse in form. Cusps are besides present with most of them being sessile and they normally close at darks. The cusps are arranged in braces about 10-18 pears occurs on a foliage.

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The breadth of the flowers extends for about one inch and they are normally white in colour with the petals being xanthous with ruddy chevrons. The buds of the flower are normally pinkish in colour.

The cods of the Tamarindus indica comprise of shell that are largely brown in colour with curve like indentures. The pod size of the Tamarindus indica depends on the figure and the size of seeds it contains. Most of the Asia continent ‘s Tamarindus indica can busy up to a upper limit of 12 seeds and those Tamarindus indicas that are found within tropical parts can incorporate up to a upper limit of 6 seeds. Average size of the cod is about 10cm that is about 4inches.

The seeds of the premature tamarind fruit are rather light-green in colour, and the shells that comprise the cod are hard to check and much less brickle. At adulthood of the fruit the seed is brown in colour and the cod is more brickle and can be ace unfastened more easy. Within the cod the seeds are surrounded by a heavy tissue referred to as the mush, which has either a rancid or sweet gustatory sensation. The mush has good and economical utilizations.

The fruit of the Tamarindus indica of the Tamarindus indica has a high acidic, sugar and Ca content. The Tamarindus indica works can be propagated either by seeds or film editings. Seedlings bear fruits within a period of 6 to 8 old ages after development. Film editings or immature trees are normally planted in dirt above the normal dirt degree so as to let subsequent subsiding of the dirt. Area around the works should be good irrigated as to keep steady wet for immature workss. At adulthood the works requires minimal irrigation. The works normally tolerates a great diverseness of dirt status but is preferred in dirt that is deep and somewhat acidic.

Tamarind trees have a assortment of usage from the mush that is used in sauce and Indian relish to the foliages and barks that has of import medicative applications. Tamarind bark is processed into wood and can be used in doing furniture and wood flooring. The cods and flowers are normally pickled and used as side dish. They are most frequently used as cosmetic workss to supply sunglassess along wayside.

Taxonomic Description of Tamarind

Kingdom: Plantae – Plants

Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – ( Vascular plants-has capablenesss of carry oning H2O and foods around the construction of the works. )

Superdivision: Spermatophyta – ( Seed plants- works that produces and reproduces by seeds )

Division: Magnoliophyta – Blossoming workss

Class: Magnoliopsida – ( Dicotyledons- has two seed leafs or seed foliages contrast with one seed leaf found in liliopsid workss. Leafs of the magnoliopsids are normally reticular and the roots of the works is adventitious )

Subclass: Rosidae ( Large trees with radially symmetrical flowers with petals non coalesced. Flowers has a floral cup which is a cup-shaped construction formed by a amalgamate calyx, corolla and stamens. Flowers normally borne in aments ; long, frequently pendulate blossomings with little flowers and lepidote stipules…… . Niki Wessels, myfundi your on-line encyclopaedia ) .

Order: Fabales ( comprise of a dehiscent seed cod with seeds present in a row, sometimes in single subdivisions. Flowers have 10 or more stamens….R.J. Hodgkiss )

Family: Fabaceae – ( Pea family- foliages normally alternate with stipules, or compound. Flowers have one simple pistil that frequently become the cod fruit. Flowers are bilaterally symmetrical with sepals fused into a tube…… Robert W. Freckmann )

Genus: Tamarindus – Tamarindus indica ( genus is monotypic and lone comprises of one species )

Speciess: Tamarindus indica L. – Tamarindus indica

Biogeographic Origin of Tamarind

The Tamarindus indica is native to tropical Africa and likely was introduced to tropical West Indies and Asia states such as India. From Asia it may hold been distributed to other countries such as Iranian and Arab states and surrounded countries. The first Tamarindus indica tree was planted in tropical Hawaii around the twelvemonth of 1797. The Tamarindus indica tree may hold been introduced to Mexico, South American states and the West Indies much earlier. The Tamarindus indica distribution within these peculiar countries all possesses fruits that are rather different in their visual aspect, texture and gustatory sensation. Contrast with Tamarindus indica biogeography beginning, it is widely and extensively cultivated in the tropical countries of the universe. Tamarinds even up to day of the month are being cultivated in states such as Nigeria, Cameroon and Tanzania. Distribution of Tamarindus indica is recognition to African slaves, Portuguese and Spaniards, whose challenger for addition land infinite promoted a wider geographic location for the growing and development of Tamarindus indica.

Tamarind Medicinal utilizations and belongingss

Tamarind has the following four properties……..

Cathartic ; describes a medical specialty that causes voidance of the intestine

Astringent

Antipyretic: a drug that is used in the therapy and the decrease of febrility.

Antiseptic ; it serves as a drug to cut down and forestall infection particularly by the riddance and growing of micro-organism such as bacteriums and Fungis that cause disease or decay.

Refrigerant ; a medical specialty that reduces or alleviates febrility or reduces organic structure heat

Specific Medicinal Properties and Uses of Medicine

It is used as a mild laxative to handle digestive system upset and therefore it is able to advance bowel motion and alleviate digestive complaints.

It is used in the intervention of bronchial upsets

It is used in the relieve of sore pharynx

It is used as a antiseptic in oculus Hoths and the intervention of ulcers

Because of Tamarindus indica acidic nature it is able to excites gall and digestive juices and as such service as a redress in alleviating biliousness in the organic structure.

It is rumored to destruct worms in the bowel of kids

It is utile in the intervention of icterus

Tamarind is high in vitamin C content and as such is used in the intervention and subsequent remedy of scorbutus and besides as an antiscorbutic agent.

Tamarind is besides used as a blood purifier

Tamarind is used in organic structure cleaning

Because of its refrigerant belongingss tamarind is used as a redress for febrility. In the Philippines Tamarindus indica is used to handle and cut down malaria fever.

It is used in folk medical specialty as redress for strivings and puffinesss

It is effectual in the intervention of burn and healing of tegument by forestalling hydrops. Oedema is same as hydrops and is build of surplus of fluid around skin tissues, which is a characteristic in many burn victims.

Oil from Tamarindus indica helps advance wet and healthy tegument and besides restricts the entry of harmful sources.

Tamarind is used to handle dysentery. Dysentery is a disease of the lower bowel caused by many parasites particularly protozoan that frequently leads to trouble, persistent terrible diarrhoea, redness and the transition of blood and mucous secretion.

Tamarind mush because of its hempen nature is utile in alleviating irregularity

Tamarind has besides been rumored to take down cholesterin degrees due to their hempen nature they are able to adhere to bile salts curtailing its resorption in the colon.

Tamarind with other remedial ingredients in the signifier of soup helps to alleviates and helps to unclutter rhinal obstruction.

Tamarind is used for diarrhoea.

The ingredients in Tamarindus indica helps advance healthy bosom by indirectly take downing blood cholesterin.

It is used as a intervention for leukorrhea, which is a white discharge.

Tamarind comprises of tartaric acid that provides and serves as a powerful antioxidant for the organic structure.

The fibre binds besides to toxin chemicals that frequently binds to mucus and throw out them from the organic structure. These toxin chemicals are frequently the precursor for many malignant neoplastic disease particularly colon malignant neoplastic disease.

The Tamarindus indica is a beginning of many minerals such as K, Ca, Cu, Se, Zn, Mg and particularly Cu. Iron facilitates the production of ruddy blood cells and as a co-factor for cytochrome oxidase enzymes.

Treatment of gall vesica jobs and haemorrhoid.

Polysaccharide in Tamarindus indica AIDSs in the relieve of dry oculus syndrome

Presence of antioxidant in Tamarindus indica aid to hike the organic structure ‘s immune system

Tamarind helps detain the advancement of fluorosis caused by extra fluorides

Tamarind is used in instances of gingivitis and oculus redness.

Plant portion used for medicative intents

Ailments

Pulp

Treatment of:

Scurvy, febrility, biliousness, flatulency, dyspepsia, irregularity, loss appetency, gall upset

Is used for the disposition of nutrient consumption.

Reduces the chance of colon malignant neoplastic disease

Pulp is smeared on tegument for skin-itching

Used for common cold

It is used as a mild laxative

It is used to relieve intoxicant poisoning and Datura toxic condition

Leafs

Used as cataplasm for cuts and fire

Treatment of febrility and rheumatism ( stiffness in articulations and musculuss ) .

Herbal tea from Tamarindus indica foliages is used to handle oculus infections and is normally taken internal for the intervention of diabetes and common cold and grippe.

Aid to forestall hydrops.

Used for liver upsets such as icterus, worms and liquid drawn is used as a wash for sore eyes

Crushed foliages are normally applied to articulations of tegument for hurting relieve.

Bark

Is utile in wheezing onslaught

Aidss in the remotion of lentigos

Bark is prepare into a styptic and quinine water for thorax upsets

Poultice extracted from the bark are used on unfastened sores and caterpillar roseolas.

Rootss

Aidss in the remotion of lentigos

Improves appetite

Treat urinary jobs, irregularity, diarrhoea, asthma, skin annoyances and infections caused by touch and tick bites such as itchs.

Used as a redress for thorax ailments.

Is used as an ingredient in the prescription for Hansen’s disease.

Seed

Powdered Tamarindus indicas seed is used in chronic diarrhoea, digestive upset such as dysentery.

Seed coat besides has styptic belongingss and is used in the intervention of the latter besides.

Tamarind meat is an ingredient in assorted medical specialties and is effectual in bring arounding febrility, handling enteric diseases and diarrhoea.

Helps to acquire rid of enteric parasites

The seed pulverization is applied locally to the vagina for contraction of the vaginal transition.

Shells

Is used for handling running tummy

Flowers

These are used for digestive upsets, popularly used by indigens

Boiled or dried flower is utile for strivings, swelling and furuncles.

Juice extracted from flowers is utile for handling hemorrhage hemorrhoids.

Medicative Uses of Tamarind acquired from interviews

Name of bush medical specialty seller

Address and telephone figure

Date of interview

Medicative utilizations of Tamarindus indica

Shermila Mohammad

149 wide street betterhope

Tel # : 220-7729

24th April 2011

Leaf- used for handling measel

Fruit- cold sirup, for syphilis ( both internal and external )

Ivord Johnson

608 West Ruimveldt

Tel # : 227-8547

24th April 2011

Pulp- used to throw out cold out of the organic structure

Seed- used for serpent bites

Method of Preparation of Tamarind for Medicinal Uses

The partly dried fruit of the Tamarind is preponderantly used in Medicine. The slab, which is a thick piece or ball of the Tamarindus indica, is crushed and mash into a paste and so a base on balls through a screen. The paste obtained from the mashing can be used straight and can be applied unto the tegument or taken orally as a agency of bring arounding or handling certain medical complaints. During screening the all right mush and juices will travel through go forthing behind the hempen chaff.

The partly dried fruit of the Tamarindus indica tree is used to do medical specialty. Tamarind is typically prepared as a paste and can be taken by oral cavity or applied to the tegument. Although no usual dose is available for Tamarindus indica ‘s usage on the tegument, it has been taken by oral cavity in doses of 10 to 50 gms in the signifier of fruit regular hexahedrons.

Pharmacological and Side Effectss

Taking isobutylphenyl propionic acid or acetylsalicylic acid with Tamarindus indica increases the soaking up benefit of these medicines and as such leads to an addition chance of demoing hazards and side effects that normally compliments with the peculiar medicine taken. This phenomenon occurs as a consequence of Tamarindus indica adhering ability with the peculiar medicine.

There are no known side effects that straight consequences from the ingestion of Tamarindus indica. Tamarind nevertheless is good for pregnant adult females.

The Table below summarizes the natural merchandises, phytochemicals and active ingredients of the Tamarindus indica works.

Natural merchandises

Phytochemicals

Active ingredients

Terpenes ( inclusive of limonene and geraniol )

Glycosides ; components include: Vitexin, Isovitexin Orientin, isorienthin ( found largely in the roots and foliages )

Tartaric acid, tamarind constitute a big proportion of this compound

Phenylpropanoids ( inclusive of safrole, cinnamic acid, ethyl cinnamate )

Alkaloid

Chrysanthemin

Alkylthiazoles

Hordenine

Malic acid

Tannins

Citric acid

Saponins

Tartaric acid

Sesquiterpenes

Potassium

Phlobatamins

Bitartrate

Methyl salicylate

Chewing gum

Pyrazine

Pectin

Safrole

Parechymatous fibers

Cinnamic acid

Limonene

Alkylthiazoles

Non medicative utilizations of the assorted works variety meats

Tamarind in most tropical states is used as cosmetic workss on campuses and other prestige countries.

Leafs

Leafs are cooked ; flowers are frequently cooked and eaten as leafy vegetables in certain Asiatic states such as India.

Infusions from leave is used in organic structure lotion. It is besides used to intensify the colour of hair dye.

Extract is normally added to other tegument attention and cosmetics.

Leafs are boiled with other foliages in a procedure of decoloring to fix them for chapeau devising.

Galls, which are swelling caused by insects, are frequently used in tanning.

Barks

Barks can be used as duramen or sapwood and depending on the type of lumber they can be used in doing furniture or flooring and edifice building

Wood signifiers first-class wood coal for gunpowder.

Contains amber oil utile in varnish and illuminant

Fiber from bark is used in string and twine devising

The branchlets and barks can be used as masticating sticks

Bark is frequently burned to bring forth ink

Wood can be used to supply as beginning of fuel

Fruit

Is used as spice

The mush of Sweet Tamarindus indica or less mature Tamarindus indica that is less acrimonious is used in drinks

Pulp is used as a flavorer for nutrients

Pod is cooked and used as a flavorer

The mush particularly of the sweet Tamarindus indica can be used in confectioneries and therefore can be taken as a bite.

Sizzle or fried Tamarindus indica is consume as nutrient straight e.g. in Bahamas

The mush can be used to do jams and comeuppances.

Can be used as preservative for fermenting nutrient

Pulp of fruit is popularly used in soup devising in certain states

Seeds

The meat pulverization obtained from the Tamarindus indica seed can be used in the fabric industries and other industries for the intent of printing of fabrics, paper size, as stabilizer in bricks and as a structural mechanism in plastic.

The meat can be used to do wood gum

Amber oil is frequently extracted from the Tamarindus indica seed and is used as an illuminant and varnish.

Infusion from Tamarindus indica seed is used as a stabilizer in some ice pick

Seed is sometime used as exigency nutrient beginning that is available as a pulverization amylum obtained from a series of method.

Flowers

Provides a great beginning of nectar for Apis mellifera and therefore can be used to engender bees in order to obtain honey.

Flowers can function as an ingredient in salads

Flowers can be used in dyeing