THE INTRODUCTION Heavy metals metallic chemical element

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE TECHNICAL
UNIVERSITY OF KENYA

 

SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

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RESEARCH PROPOSAL

 

 

ANALYSIS OF HEAVY
METALS IN AIR IN A LEAD ACID BATTERY INDUSTRY

 

 

 

STEPHEN MUTINDA
MWINZI

 

 

REGISTRATION NUMBER: SPCI/02493P/2015

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

Heavy metals metallic chemical
element that has a relatively high density and atomic weights. They include cadmium
(Cd), Mercury(Hg), chromium(Cr), Thallium(Th), arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). Heavy
metals in the environment may result from many different activities and sources
and may enter into the environment by a wide range of processes and pathways;
heavy metals are naturally found on earth’s crust and have been used in many
different applications.

Generic sources of heavy metals
include mining and industrial production such as, smelters, oil refineries,
petrochemical plants and chemical industry. Atmospheric emissions are probably
the most harmful to the environment, and consequently, to human health due to
either the great quantity involved, or their widespread dispersion which may
originate many different exposure pathways. Precisely, these three heavy metals
Arsenic, lead and Cadmium are of great concern to human health and to the
environment, mostly due to their ability to travel long distances in the
atmosphere before deposition.

Lead

Lead is a soft and malleable metal
and has a relatively low melting point and its atomic number is 82. Lead exists
as Pb+2 ion during the chemical reaction It has been used in many different
applications: automotive batteries making, soldering materials, coloured
pigments and pipes for transporting water and an additive in gasoline. Lead is highly
toxic metal and a cumulative poison in human health.

Cadmium

Cadmium is soft bluish-white
metal with atomic number of 48.
It has an
oxidation state is Cd2+ in most of the compounds. It is used in lead acid batteries and in paint pigments. It
is a common component of commercial fertilizers used in agriculture and is
frequently found in agricultural soils.

Arsenic

Arsenic is a chemical
element with atomic number of 33. In the environment it exists in oxidation states
of Cd3+ and Cd5+. It occurs in many minerals usually in
combination with sulphur and metals and also as a pure elemental crystal

 

 

 

Statement of the problem

Increased adulteration of the working
environment through heavy metals by industries has been a major problem

Justification of the study

This research will act as a
whistle blower in informing the industrialists, about the actual content of
heavy metals in air and the health effects their staff are exposed to. Also it
will shed light on the appropriate measures that can be taken to maintain the
levels to accepted levels.

Objectives of the study

Main objective of the study

Analysis of heavy metals in air in a lead acid battery
industry

Specific Objectives

To determine the actual content
of lead in air

To relate the externally analysed
heavy metals with internally analsysed