The major functions of banks Essay

A Critical Discussion of the Major Functions

Performed by Investment Banks.


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Abstract …………………………………………………………..……………… . 2

Chapter 1 –The Major Functions of Investment Banks ……………………… 3

  1. Drumhead ……………………………………………………………..……… . 3
  2. Bills of Exchange …………………………………………..………………… 4
  3. Corporate Finance ……………………………………….…………………… 4
  4. Investing Management …………………………………………….……….. 6

Chapter 2 – Decisions and Recommendations …………..………………… 10

Bibliography …………………………………………………..………………… 12


Investing Bankss evolved as a consequence of moneymaking merchandiser centres located in the North of Italy, Belgium every bit good as Holland from the 17th through 19th centuries. During that period Europe’s most influential merchandiser households moved to the United Kingdom as it was going the merchandiser and banking centre of the part. Said list included the Barings, Rothchilds, and Warburg households and their involvements ( Kuhn, Robert. 1990 ) [ 1 ] . Developments in the United States resulted in that state going the centre of fiscal activity in the late twentieth century and saw the rise of JP Morgan, Goldman Sachs Merrill Lynch and Morgan Staley fall ining the ranks of the older investing powers ( Carosso, 1970 ) [ 2 ] .

Investing banking represents a wide spectrum of fiscal services that are dispensed by assorted specializers in concurrence with planetary investing Bankss. The services performed by these establishments includes ( Lott, 2001 ) [ 3 ] :

  1. Underwriting,
  2. Distribution,
  3. The care of markets in bonds, portions and securities issued by public entities and concerns, every bit good as
  4. Other services

In contrast to the services provided by commercial Bankss, where the rule maps are to accept sedimentations and do loans to consumers and concern on a short-run footing, investing Bankss engage in four of import maps ( Lott, 2001 ) [ 4 ] :

  1. Aid in the agreement for the proviso of financess to corporations and authoritiess through underwriting every bit good as administering new securities issues,
  2. Care of markets for securities through the trading and executing of orders for secondary market minutess,
  3. Administer advice with regard to the purchase, sale and issue of securities every bit good as other fiscal countries,
  4. The creative activity and direction of varied investing vehicles.

In add-on to the foregoing, investing Bankss besides perform a figure of other of import minutess and maps that are the topic of treatment in this paper.

Chapter 1 –The Major Functions of Investment Banks

1.1 Drumhead

Investing banking consists of a wide array of fiscal minutess. Some of the more familiar are ( Lott, 2001 ) [ 5 ] :

  1. Underwriting,
  2. Syndication,
  3. Corporate Demand Capital
  4. Tenders and,
  5. Investing banking maps

It is this last country that shall for the footing for scrutiny.

  1. Bills of Exchange ( Williamson, 1988 ) [ 6 ]

These are independent instruments of debt that carry the signature of the client ( debitor ) . In drumhead, it is an order that directs a specific amount is to be paid to a specific person. This instrument safeguards that a measure is accepted so that control is non lost of the point ( s ) involved. A ‘bill of exchange’ contains a declared day of the month of payment that must be concluded on that day of the month irrespective of any differences refering the point named. There are legal steps to forestall payment, termed ‘non-honoring’ , which are capable to differing regulations depending upon the state involved.

  1. Corporate Finance ( Williamson, 1988 ) [ 7 ]

This facet of investing banking represents a specific finance country that trades with corporate fiscal determinations every bit good as the tools and analysis expressions and procedures utilized to get at these determinations. It is divided into ‘short-term’ and ‘long-term’ techniques and determinations whereby the aim is to heighten corporate value through guaranting the ‘return on capital’ is more than the ‘cost of capital’ . The equation rests on a conservative application of hazards.

Corporate finance is related to managerial finance, although the latter is larger in range as it entails fiscal techniques that are possible in all concern signifiers, whether they are corporate or non-corporate.

  1. IPO’s ( efmoody, 2005 ) [ 8 ]

Termed ‘Initial Public Offerings’ , IPO’s represent the beginning of a publically listed company and as such those investors whom are in place at this phase are poised to harvest about immediate additions if the stock rises on opening twenty-four hours. Similarly, these same investors stand to lose money if the gap monetary value beads well. During the last few old ages the offering monetary values have tended to average out as being overpriced. This is borne out by the fact that the shutting monetary value, on norm, the twenty-four hours of opening generated an one-year return of merely 2 % .

In footings of profitableness, IPO’s generate big fees for the active houses and represent the most profitable underwriting country. Fees by and large mean seven per centum ( 7 % ) . After the assorted splits between pull offing investment bankers, securities firm houses, jurisprudence houses and staff the net income hovers in the 34 % through 40 % scope. This service is a basis in helping houses to drift securities needed to spread out or subvention operations and as such represents one of the more of import maps performed by investing Bankss.

  1. Rights Issues ( Constantinides et al, 2002 ) [ 9 ]

These are equity issues whereby stockholders of record have the right to buy new portions that have a fixed exercising monetary value.

  1. Mergers & A ; Acquisitions ( Allen et al, 2000 ) [ 10 ]

Investing Bankss act in the capacity as advisers in amalgamation and acquisition trades. In working with both the mark ( s ) of acquisition every bit good as the acquirer ( s ) , investing Bankss provide their information expertness to assist get at the ‘reservation price’ . They besides calculate the potency for additions and the hazards in the dealing. And while investing Bankss have a vested involvement in these trades, their pragmatism is an effectual counter weight in keeping a balance between underestimating and overestimating. Operating under banking ordinances, investing Bankss represent a kind of intermediary that engenders public trust in the legitimacy of the dealing and is a portion of a system that represent cheques and balances over these types of minutess.

Commercial Bankss might hold possible struggles of involvement in these types of trades, so even while they have late taken on this function, the bulk of these minutess are still funneled through investing Bankss.

  1. Investing Management ( Williamson, 1988 ) [ 11 ]

As the term implies, investing direction is besides known as portfolio direction every bit good as money direction. It is a section of investing analysis that examines the direction of money associating to securities purchases every bit good as their sale.

  1. High Net Worth Individuals ( Williamson, 1988 ) [ 12 ]

Investing banking services for persons of high net worth has been a long standing characteristic for an elect group whose banking investing demands exceed the capablenesss of commercial Bankss and traditional specializers. The complex variable sing the client’s return marks and comparative grades of hazard along with long every bit good as short-run demands represent specialised analysis. The resources of an investing bank are suited to run into the demanding demands of these types of persons every bit good as confidentiality. The highly sophisticated variables consisting recommendations and arrangement in assorted instruments are crafted to suit an sanctioned program of action. Because high net worth persons have entree to their ain channels of information, the demands of these types of clients in footings of edification requires the resources of a specialised establishment.

  1. Corporations ( Williamson, 1988 ) [ 13 ]

The investing direction of corporations entails managing a figure of plus direction countries. As is the instance with high net worth persons, it entails an extended analysis of the ends and aims desired every bit good as the hard currency handiness demands for specific periods of clip. The predating represents a valuable service as a consequence of the high degree contacts and entree to specialized information, chances and rates of return with moderate hazard that investing Bankss can avail themselves of.

  1. Pension Fundss ( Williamson, 1988 ) [ 14 ]

These financess represent highly big amounts that require arrangement in investing avenues that contain high grades of safety every bit good as run intoing return rates in established parametric quantities. The of import nature of these retirement financess requires an establishment to pay close attending to put on the line turning away every bit good as any possible alterations and displacements in the market that could potentially impact the money in the Fund.

  1. Common Funds ( Williamson, 1988 ) [ 15 ]

In footings of common financess, there are literally 100s of fund types to choose from as a consequence of the categorizations within this group. One peculiar type of fund which investing Bankss have an advantage over commercial Bankss is in hedge financess. These types of financess are unregulated and normally governed by unconventional schemes. Hedge financess trade in equities, money markets and bonds and offer outputs every bit good as hazards that exceed traditional long stock and bond methodological analysiss. The close nature of these financess and the fact that they cater to establishments, corporations and high net worth persons merely is within the horizon of investing Bankss.

The common fund categorizations contains a figure of differing types, these are as follows:

  1. Objective Oriented
    1. Growth

This type is structured so that it appreciates in value over clip by puting chiefly in the common stock of companies that have shown or are demoing a high growing potency.

  1. Income

These are structured to bring forth dividends on a regular footing as the precedence, with growing in value as the secondary choice standards.

  1. Balanced

These financess are a balance between growing and income financess thereby supplying investors with dividend payouts while the fund appreciates in value as a consequence of the growing in the corporations selected.

  1. Market Oriented
    1. Specialized

Through restricting retentions in one industry sector these ‘sector growth’ financess place their accent on one industry categorization. The predating entails hazards if that categorization or sections of that categorization execute ill. The contrary is besides true if the sector experiences growing.

  1. Chemical bond Fundss

These tend to be conservative investings, chiefly in debt securities, with the aim of supplying income while continuing capital. The focal point is similar to Income Funds, which is the payment of dividends.

  1. Municipal

These types of bonds can be either short or long term and represent province and or local authorities issues.

  1. Corporate

These financess are composed of bond issues by corporations and are guaranteed by companies to pay out both involvement every bit good as rule.

  1. Zero-coupon

These are bonds that are sold to investors at a price reduction and payout merely on the adulthood of the face value. Because the investor purchased these at a price reduction, the face value represents the addition.

  1. International

These are composed of the debt securities of corporations and authoritiess located in other states. As some states pay higher rates, the additions can be interesting depending upon currency fluctuations and transition rates.

  1. Convertible Securities

These financess invest in securities ( debt ) that license transition of their bonds into stock. The aim is the saving of capital giving up growing and income.

  1. Money Market

Money market financess invest in the short-run duties, debt, of both authoritiess and corporations and are structured by and big to allow smaller investors to take part for sums get downing at about $ 500, depending upon the fund. Without the fund, direct engagement requires increases of $ 10,000. The pooled amounts are so invested and managed.

  1. Multifunds

This type of fund invests in the public presentation of other types of common financess.

  1. All Weather

These are designed to endure all types of concern and economic stages.

  1. Emerging Growth

These types of common financess invest in companies with high growing potency.

  1. Cherished Metallic elements

As the name indicates, these are financess that take places in assorted types of valuable metals.

  1. Green

A newer class within this categorization, Green Fundss choice growing companies that have a record of being antiphonal on environmental issues and adhere to policies within that sphere.

Chapter 2 – Decisions

Investing Bankss serve a valuable intent in fiscal and concern markets through their handling of public offerings ( IPO’s ) and private arrangements. These maps help corporations with their liquidness demands and the issue of securities. As investing Bankss can sell stock in an IPO every bit good as secondary offering and private arrangements they represent a centralised location that is able to make full the demands of corporations, governmental entities and high net worth persons. The decennaries, and in some instances centuries of engagement in high degree finance has resulted in connexions within finance spheres whereby investing Bankss maintain ties and associations at engagement degrees that are beyond commercial Bankss. In add-on, this sector represents the top of the endowment pool in finance, therefore the intelligence factor exceeds the forces employed in commercial banking.

Because investing Bankss are chiefly paid on a success footing, their committedness to the trades is higher and so are the pecuniary wagess. Typically, the compensation in the industry ranges 50 through 60 % of net incomes paid out to spouses and employees. Investing banking executives, analysts, junior bankers and junior spouses by and large earn twice their commercial bank opposite numbers as their occupations entail doing money for the house every bit good as public presentation reappraisals for themselves. The high force per unit area and public presentation nature of these places means merely the brightest in their Fieldss work in this sector, therefore the ground for investing Bankss having the biggest and the best of trades in all of the service map countries mentioned above.

The predating accent on net incomes, net incomes, fees and public presentation might look like a focal point on greed, nevertheless it is geared to convey out the best, through competition among houses, which benefits investors, the general populace and the economic systems of the states in which these houses operate.


Allen, Linda, Jagtiani, Julapa, Sauders, Anthony.The Role of Bank Advisors in Mergers and Acquisitions. Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, Supervision and Regulation.

Carosso, Vincent. 1970.Investing Banking in America, A History. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. ISBN: 0674465741

Constantinides, George, Harris, Milton, Stulz, Rene. 2002.Investing Banking and Securities Issuance. Handbook of the Economics of Finance. ISBN: 0444513639 2005.IPO’s. hypertext transfer protocol: //’s.html

Kuhn, Robert. 1990.The Library of Investment Banking. Dow-Jones Irwin, Homewood, IL. ISBN: 1556232993

Lott, Tom. 2001.Vault Career Guide to Investment Banking. Vault. ISBN: 1581311338

Williamson, Peter. 1988.The Investment Banking Handbook. John Wiley & A ; Sons. ISBN: 0471815624