The Mechanical Characterisation Of Cartilage Tissue Biology Essay

Articular gristle, which is a signifier of hyaloid gristle is a biomaterial composed chiefly of collagen, covers the jointing surfaces of castanetss [ 2 ] . Collagen is the most of import structural stuff of difficult and soft tissues in animate beings and operates as the bearing surfaces of articulations. Cartilage is porous and its high grade of mechanical strength comes about from the motion of fluid ( synovial fluid ) in and out of the tissue, when forces are applied to it via joint lading [ 2 ] .

The avascular tissue articular gristle is chiefly composed of one cell type ( chondrocytes ) , and the ability of articular gristle to self-repair is really restricted. The function of chondrocytes is to synthesize and continue the extracellular matrix [ 3 ] . Articular gristle besides has high H2O content ( 70 to 80 % of the tissue moisture weight ww ) , and this allows gristle to digest the compressive, tensile and shear forces related with joint lading [ 4 ] .

In senior persons, the loss of the physical and mechanical belongingss of gristle bit by bit consequences in hurting, and other clinical symptoms related with degenerative arthritis. Osteoarthritis is an age-related disease that finally has an consequence on each person, who live onto they senior old ages [ 5 ] .

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

The hurting associated with degenerative arthritis typically emerges from the devolution of the gristle between the articulations, as a consequence of primary degenerative arthritis, or from trauma conveying about the loss of gristle [ 6 ] . Given that gristle demonstrates a hapless ability to self-repair, these hurts are sustained for old ages and can finally convey about farther devolution ( secondary degenerative arthritis ) [ 7 ] . The devolution of gristle causes bone ends to go open, and the deposition of new osteal tissue on the bone ends. This besides reduces the infinite in the joint pit and bounds motion [ 1 ] . It has been estimated that approximately 36 million Americans are diagnosed with some signifier of arthritis [ 6 ] . Osteoarthritis is besides the chief ground as to why many persons undergo hip and knee replacing surgery [ 8 ] , and is besides the chief cause of mobility damage in senior persons [ 9 ] .

The typical methods that are usually used for gristle fix ( e.g. tissue autoplasties or homografts ) do non predictably re-establish a stable articular surface to an osteoarthritic articulation. Cell based therapies i.e. , nidation of cells or engineered gristle, mean a different method to articular gristle fix [ 10 ] .

In vivo surveies for articular gristle fix, or in vitro attacks to analyze cell and tissue-level responses to molecular, mechanical, and familial uses utilizing engineered gristle can be carried out [ 10 ] .

Purposes and aims.

In order to derive a better apprehension of the belongingss of gristle tissue, the present survey will be carried out to detect the mechanical and histological belongingss of gristle under assorted conditions. This will be achieved by planing an experimental process whereby inactive and dynamic trial will be carried out at assorted tonss on the gristle tissue. Histological sectioning will so be carried out in order to analyze the incursion of synovial fluid into the gristle tissue.

2. Background on gristle.

Cartilage can be found in many different countries of the human organic structure, and is a lasting and flexible type of connective tissue [ 11 ] . It is avascular, intending it does non hold a blood supply and therefore being the chief ground why it is has troubles in self fix [ 9 ] . There is merely cell type found in gristle tissue matrix, the chondrocytes that are bound in lacunaes. Another chief ground as to why gristle has such troubles in self-repair is that the chondrocytes are non capable to be transported to the site of an hurt [ 11 ] .

There are 3 chief types of gristle found in the organic structure, and these include hyaline gristle, elastic gristle and fibrocartilage. These three types of gristle are all made up of chondrocytes and extracellular matrix molecules. Elastic gristle can be distinguished via the presence of elastin, and makes up the ear and nose. Fibrocartilage is chiefly present at the terminals of ligaments and sinews. A big sum of collagen is besides present in the ECM of fibrocartilage in comparing to hyaline gristle [ 12 ] .

Articular gristle is composed of a scope of different stuffs that have different belongingss. Approximately 75 to 85 % of the whole tissue is made of H2O in weight. The staying weight is made up by proteoglycans and collagen [ 13 ] . The presence of type II collagen in hyaloid gristle distinguishes it from the other types of gristle [ 14 ] . Articular gristle which is a type of hyaline gristle has a smooth, glistening visual aspect and besides appears to be white [ 12 ] . The jointing surfaces of long castanetss and sesamoid castanetss found in synovial articulations are coated in articular gristle, for e.g. in the articulatio genus articulation. Articular gristle has the ability to digest really big tonss, in peculiar in the hip and articulatio genus articulations. It besides provides the articulations with a smooth lubricating bearing material [ 15-16 ] . Other illustrations or hyaloid gristle include the growing home base and the voice box [ 13 ] .

Articular gristle is chiefly present in diarthrodial articulations [ 17 ] . Diarthrodial/ synovial articulations which are found for e.g. in the articulatio genus, hip and shoulders are different from other articulations found in the organic structure ( hempen and cartilaginous ) , as they allow for a greater assortment of motion ( see Figure 1 ) [ 13 ] . The diarthrodial articulation is surrounded by a hempen capsule, and the interior bed is formed of synovial membrane. The synovial membrane is an of import characteristic as it is involved in the remotion of waste produced by cellular constituents in the joint. The synovial membrane secretes the synovial fluid which is besides a critical characteristic of diarthrodial articulations, as it acts as a lubricator cut downing the sum of wear and clash in the joint, and carries foods to the cells in articular gristle [ 18 ] .

Figure1. Diagram of a normal Diarthrodial articulation.

hypertext transfer protocol: // #

2.1. Structure and map of articular gristle.

The articular gristle in diarthrodial articulations is important in absorbing and understating big sums of tonss encountered in personaa‚¬a„?s mundane life, and besides indispensable in cut downing the sum of surface clash. It does so by increasing the contact country, absorbing the force, and therefore cut downing the applied strain [ 17 ] . Another alone belongings of articular gristle is that it can defy assorted cyclic burden conditions, and compressive tonss that can be up to three to six times the organic structure weight without any considerable wear [ 19 ] . These qualities of articular gristle come about from the presence of interstitial fluid. The assorted tonss applied to the joint are supported by interstitial fluid and this protects the solid matrix from the forces of the burden applied [ 17 ] . The frictional coefficient is therefore reduced to 0.0075 due to the pressurisation of the tissue fluid [ 13 ] , and this is farther reduced via the presence of a lubricating movie e.g. synovial fluid [ 20 ] .

2.1.1. Chondrocytes.

The lone cell type found in human articular gristle is chondrocytes, and these cells makeup about 1-10 % of the entire tissue volume [ 17 ] . Chondrocytes play an of import function in the saving of the size, and mechanical belongingss of the articular gristle tissue, by reconstructing degraded matrix molecules. Some chondrocytes are thought to be involved in feeling the mechanical environment of the cell, due to these chondrocytes holding cilia that expand from the cell into the extracellular-matrix, and because chondrocytes are involved in the alteration of the matrix belongingss in answer to lading [ 3 ] .

Chondrocytes are derived from mesenchymal root cells ( MSCs ) which originate in the bone marrow of to the full adult persons. The development of chondrocytes Begins during embryogenesis, where mesenchymal root cells differentiate into chondrocytes, and a cartilaginous matrix is secreted. These cells carry on spliting [ 3 ]

Because gristle is an avascular tissue i.e. does non hold a bloody supply or any lymphatic vass, chondrocytes do non hold any physical cell-to-cell contact amongst them. Therefore there must be a diffusion and connective conveyance of foods, waste, signal molecules and O through the matrix, in order for chondrocytes to last [ 15, 21 ] .

2.1.2. Collagen and proteoglycans.

Type II collagen is the most abundant type of collagen nowadays in articular gristle, and histories for approximately 90 % of the collagen in the matrix. The staying 10 % includes assorted other types of collagen i.e. type V, VI, IX and XI [ 13 ] . Collagen type Ten is merely found in calcified countries of gristle [ 14 ] .

In contrast to the other types of collagen, type II collagen contains a larger sum of edge saccharide groups, and this enables it to hold greater sums of interactions with H2O compared to the other types of collagen. The agreement of type IX, XI and type II collagen in articular gristle, provides the tissue with tensile strength, and allows it to physically ensnare assorted supermolecules. This agreement comes about from the different types of collagen developing a mesh that is made via the collagen types organizing filaments that interweave [ 22 ] .

Type X collagen is deemed to a proteogylcan and therefore dissimilar from other types of collagen, due to the fond regard of its collagen concatenation to an added GAG concatenation [ 23 ] . Type II and IX collagen besides have an of import function in the matrix map as they are markers of differentiated chondrocytes [ 24 ] .

Approximately 20-30 % of the dry weight of articular tissue is made up of proteoglycans [ 16 ] . Proteoglycans are big complex biomolecules, of which 95 % is made up of polyoses and the staying 5 % is protein. The protein nucleus of proteoglycans is linked with one or few different types of glycosaminoglycan ( GAG ) chains [ 3, 25 ] . Aggrecan is the chief proteoglycan found in articular gristle, every bit good other proteoglycans such as versican, biglycan and decorin [ 13 ] .

A hempen web is formed in articular gristle, by the collagen weaving together, and in which proteoglycan sums are trapped, therefore bring forthing a cohesive porous organic matrix [ 16 ] . Within this matrix there are important molecular interactions between the collagen and proteoglycan sums. These interactions can hold an consequence on chondrocyte metamorphosis, collagen web administration and collagen fibrillogenesis. Other forces within and outside of the tissue, i.e. swelling force per unit area and external burden can besides hold an consequence on these [ 13 ] .

2.1.3. Cartilage Nutrition.

2.1.4. Interstitial fluid.

2.1.5. Noncollagenous proteins.

2.1.6. zones of administration.

1. Gerard J. Tortora, B.D. , Principles of Anatomy & A ; Physiology 11th Edition Binder Ready Version. 11 erectile dysfunction. 2007: John Wiley & A ; Sons, 2007.

2. John Denis Enderle, J.D.B. , Susan M. Blanchard, Introduction to biomedical technology. 2, illustrated erectile dysfunction, erectile dysfunction. J.D.B. John Denis Enderle, Susan M. Blanchard. 2005: Academic Press, 2005.

3. Buckwalter, J.A. and H.J. Mankin, Articular gristle: tissue design and chondrocyte-matrix interactions. Instr Course Lect, 1998. 47: p. 477-86.

4. Buckwalter, J.A. and H.J. Mankin, Articular gristle fix and organ transplant. Arthritis Rheum, 1998. 41 ( 8 ) : p. 1331-42.

5. Wong, M. and D.R. Carter, Articular gristle functional histomorphology and mechanobiology: a research position. Bone, 2003. 33 ( 1 ) : p. 1-13.

6. Temenoff, J.S. and A.G. Mikos, Review: tissue technology for regeneration of articular gristle. Biomaterials, 2000. 21 ( 5 ) : p. 431-40.

7. O’Driscoll, S.W. , The healing and regeneration of articular gristle. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 1998. 80 ( 12 ) : p. 1795-812.

8. Wilson, W. , et al. , The function of computational theoretical accounts in the hunt for the mechanical behaviour and harm mechanisms of articular gristle. Med Eng Phys, 2005. 27 ( 10 ) : p. 810-26.

9. Buckwalter, J.A.a.H.J.M. , Articular Cartilage. Part II: Degeneration and Osteoarthrosis, Repair, Regeneration, and Transplantation. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 1997: p. 612-32.

10. Bronzino, J.D. , The biomedical technology enchiridion, Volume 2. 2 erectile dysfunction, erectile dysfunction. J.D. Bronzino. 2000: Springer, 2000.

11. Martini, F.E.A. , Anatomy and Physiology. 2007: Rex Bookstore, Inc.

12. David, S.H. , Biology of Cartilage Cells. R. A. Stockwell. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1979. 329 pages ; illustrated. Arthritis & A ; Rheumatism, 1980. 23 ( 8 ) : p. 964-965.

13. Mow, V.a.W.H. , Basic orthopedic biomechanics. 2nd erectile dysfunction. 1997: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins ; 2nd Revised edition.

14. Poole, A.R. , et al. , Composition and construction of articular gristle: a templet for tissue fix. Clin Orthop Relat Res, 2001 ( 391 Suppl ) : p. S26-33.

15. Mow, V.C. , A. Ratcliffe, and A.R. Poole, Cartilage and diarthrodial articulations as paradigms for hierarchal stuffs and constructions. Biomaterials, 1992. 13 ( 2 ) : p. 67-97.

16. Mow, V.C. , M.H. Holmes, and W.M. Lai, Fluid conveyance and mechanical belongingss of articular gristle: a reappraisal. J Biomech, 1984. 17 ( 5 ) : p. 377-94.

17. LeBaron, R.G. and K.A. Athanasiou, Ex vivo synthesis of articular gristle. Biomaterials, 2000. 21 ( 24 ) : p. 2575-87.

18. Guilak, F. , D.L. Butler, and S.A. Goldstein, Functional tissue technology: the function of biomechanics in articular gristle fix. Clin Orthop Relat Res, 2001 ( 391 Suppl ) : p. S295-305.

19. V.C. Mow, A.R. and A.S.L.Y. Woo, Biomechanics Of Diarthrodial Joints, erectile dysfunction. S.-V.N.Y.P.- . 1990. 1990: Springer ; 1 edition.

20. Lai, W.M. and V.C. Mow, Drag-induced compaction of articular gristle during a pervasion experiment. Biorheology, 1980. 17 ( 1-2 ) : p. 111-23.

21. Fetter, N.L. , et al. , Composition and conveyance belongingss of human mortise joint and articulatio genus gristle. J Orthop Res, 2006. 24 ( 2 ) : p. 211-9.

22. Cohen, N.P. , R.J. Foster, and V.C. Mow, Composition and kineticss of articular gristle: construction, map, and keeping healthy province. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 1998. 28 ( 4 ) : p. 203-15.

23. van der Rest, M. and R. Mayne, Type IX collagen proteoglycan from gristle is covalently cross-linked to type II collagen. J Biol Chem, 1988. 263 ( 4 ) : p. 1615-8.

24. Riesle, J. , et al. , Collagen in tissue-engineered gristle: Types, construction, and crosslinks. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 1998. 71 ( 3 ) : p. 313-327.

25. Wirth, C.J. and M. Rudert, Techniques of gristle growing sweetening: a reappraisal of the literature. Arthroscopy, 1996. 12 ( 3 ) : p. 300-8.