The Pharmacodynamics And Pharmacokinetics Of Sotalol Biology Essay

Sotalol, besides known by the trade names as Betapace, Betapace AF and Sotacor, is used to assist modulate the pulse of people with different signifiers or arrhythmias. Sotalol ‘s active ingredient is Sotalol hydrochloride, which is a white crystalline solid with a molecular weight of 308.8 ( 2010 ) . Diagram 1 shows the structural expression of Sotalol hydrochloride.

Diagram 1: structural expression of Sotalol hydrochloride ( 2010 )

Curative utilizations

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Sotalol is approved for the intervention of dangerous ventricular arrhythmias and the care of fistula beat in patients with atrial fibrillation ( B.G.Katzung et al 2009 ) . The drug is able to make this as it is able to barricade the beta receptors in the bosom ( netdoctor 2004 ) . With the beta receptors being blocked the bosom rate is reduced and besides pumps blood with less force, which means the power of the ventricles is reduced. In add-on to this sotalol can modulate the electrical urges in the bosom which cause it to crush ( netdoctor 2004 ) , ensuing in a steady regular bosom round, hence commanding arrhythmias.

Pharmacodynamics and Mechanism of action

Sotalol has 2 different types of belongingss to it ; category 2 ( beta-adrenoreceptor blocking ) and category 3 ( cardiac action possible continuance protraction ) ( 2010 ) . The drug is formulated as a racemic mixture of D- and L-sotalol ( B.G.Katzung et al 2009 ) . Both of the isomers help protract possible action but the L isomer is responsible for the beta barricading activity. The beta-blocking consequence of Sotalol is non-cardioselective, half maximal at about 80 mg/day and maximal at doses between 320 and 640 mg/day ( 2010 ) . Unlike other category 2 antiarrhythmic drugs, sotalol does n’t hold membrane stabilising effects ( Minneman et al 2005 ) .

Unlike the L isomer, the D-isomer does n’t hold the beta barricading consequence. The D-isomer provides the drug with the category 3 belongings which prolongs action potencies. However there have been some issues with the D isomer in sotalol as it was found to be associated with increased mortality ( Minneman et al 2005 ) .


Diagram 2: the chief show panel ( 2010 ) Sotalol is chiefly administered orally in the signifier of a tablet or capsule with doses of 40, 80,120,160 and 240mg of the active ingredient sotalol hydrochloride. The inactive ingredients include calcium H phosphate dehydrate, maize amylum, povidone K30, Na amylum glycollate, talc and Mg stearate ( sotalol information cusp ) .

The drug can besides come in the signifier of an injection when taking the tablets which would be given in the instance of exigencies to command unnatural bosom beats ( netdoctor 2004 ) . The drug can be given as an injection on its ain during trials to look into unnatural pulses, or as a impermanent permutation for tablets ( netdoctor 2004 ) .

The unwritten bioavailability of sotalol is 90-100 % ( ) . After being administered it is absorbed into the blood stream and extremum degrees are reached in 2.5 to 4 hours ( eMC 2010 ) . Sotalol does non adhere to plasma proteins ( 2010 ) and is non metabolized in the liver ( B.G.Katzung et al 2009 ) ensuing in sotalol staying unchanged when it is eliminated from the organic structure. The sum of sotalol can be affected when it is administered with a repast. The soaking up is reduced by about 20 % when administered with a standard repast, in comparing to fasting conditions ( eMC 2010 ) . Furthermore sotalol crosses the blood encephalon barrier ill, with cerebrospinal fluid concentrations merely 10 % of those in plasma ( eMC 2010 ) .

The riddance half life of Sotalol is between 10 and 20 hours and it is chiefly eliminated by nephritic elimination. When the drug is excreted, between 80 and 90 % of Sotalol is expelled from the organic structure in the piss where Sotalol remains unchanged. The other 10 to 20 % is excreted in the fecal affair. However geriatric patients who are taking Sotalol must be careful of Sotalol roll uping in the organic structure. Due to them holding impaired nephritic map they are frequently on a lower dose to avoid the drug accretion.

Cautions and side effects

When taking Sotalol it is possible that side effects may happen. These can include irregular or slow bosom round, thorax strivings, experiencing dizzy, tired, light headed and may hold concerns. Other effects may include take a breathing troubles, swelling, febrility and sickness, tummy strivings, musculus spasms and bleary vision. If any of these symptoms are noticed so the physicians ‘ attending is required but the Sotalol tablets must still be taken.

There are some persons who must forbear from utilizing sotalol due to their medical conditions. These may include asthma, kidney failure and circulatory jobs including low blood force per unit area, a slow bosom round or holding a bosom onslaught or bosom disease.

With gerontologies particularly, it is possible to o.d. on sotalol. If this was to go on the person is likely to endure from bradycardia, congestive bosom failure, hypotension, bronchospasm and hypoglycemia ( 2010 ) . If an overdose was to happen the person will stop taking the drug and will be monitored closely. Fortunately as sotalol does non adhere to plasma proteins, the degree of sotalol is simple plenty to cut down by hemodialysis.


To reason, sotalol is a really effectual at assisting modulate the bosom round in people who suffer with arrhythmias. As the drug normally comes in the signifier of tablets, disposal is easy ( compared to an injection which can be fiddly ) . However if used to handle the incorrect type of patient, the drug can be deadly. These patients can include gerontologies, they must be careful of drug accretion due to nephritic failure, or people with old bosom jobs, such as bosom disease or bosom onslaughts.