The four subfields of anthropology are archaeology, biological/physical anthropology, cultural anthropology, and linguistics. Archaeology is the study of people and past cultures. What archaeologist do is they might go to other countries and explore different sites and artifacts. Find out details about the artifacts from the people in the culture or by doing research. Sometimes they can get the wrong information about an artifact or even a person which can affect later history for example, Christopher Columbus. Biological/Physical anthropology is the study of human evolution. What biological anthropologists do is teach and look at biological changes in humans and primates. They view bipedalism which is walking up right, like why do humans do that? Same for neanderthals which are big heads, they want to know why humans have such big heads. Asking questions and doing research is what they do very well. What they do wrong is they could take blood samples from tribes who do not want their blood in labs or they could inject viruses into tribes who of course do not want them. Cultural anthropology is the study of cultures in all aspects. Cultural anthropologistsdiscover the reasons as to why a culture has changed or modernized. They check out the environment, any outside influences, and of course ask around the culture to see how they started and why make changes. Cultural anthropologists will also live with the people for roughly 1-3 years in order to observe the people and the culture. If a culture has some type of ritual they do then the cultural anthropologist will also participate. Linguistics is the study of language and its structure through science. What a linguistic anthropologist do is research how a language intertwines with other cultures and how they have influenced each other’s cultures. A linguistic anthropologist will study how a language shapes society or how the language can dysfunction the society. What they don’t do so well is not learn the language before traveling to another country which can make communication difficult.2. The three stages of rites of passage according to Victor Turner are preliminal, liminal, reincorporate. separation, transition, and reintegration. With separation a person will separate themselves from their past life. An example is when someone goes to serve our country they will cut their hair as a way of separating themselves from their past life. Transition is the liminal phase, someone has left a place but has not yet joined a new state. Reintegration is where the initiate emerges and is welcomed within a new status. A rite of passage could be when a teenager gets their driver’s license. So the teenager will separate themselves from the people who don’t know how to drive to stepping foot in the driver’s seat. The transition is when they receive their permit to drive with a parent or guardian. After they have enough practice then they come to the next stage and take the driver’s test. Then the reintegration stage is when the teen finally passes their driver’s test and receives their license. Liminality is the space between the threshold. After one has started to do the rites of passage the steps can be quite risky. Some cultures have dangerous rituals that may not end in survival. In order to keep their people from death or in the hospital they decided to control their rituals. How they control the rituals is by timing the person from start to finish, keeping them away from the other people in the culture and placing them with people who are also participating in the rituals with them. 3. Three ways culture can change is by syncretism( a cultural chang in beliefs), assimilation (outside influences), and domination (an invasion of another county or culture).With advanced technologies more outside influences have encouraged other cultures to partake in different belief systems, traditions, or rituals. A way that can be done is through marriage like if someone were to marry another with different belief systems then they are definitely encouraged to engage in traditions from another culture. If an invasion were to happen then a culture is forced to change their beliefs and traditions. Within history there have been invasions of different countries who have forced another country to have the same beliefs as them. An example of this can be the Spain and France cultural exchange. Some cultures have modernized their beliefs so they make a change in their beliefs to please the younger generations. Friends of mine have within their culture a curfew and when their parents were young they had to be home at a certain time like 9 o’clock but for my friends it has changed to 11 o’clock sometimes 12. In my family a tradition that has always been done is that the mother buys the daughter a car for her 16th birthday. My mom kept talking about me driving and explaining that she would find a way to get me a car when my birthday came around. So months went by and finally my birthday arrived and I waited until my mom did the “Super Sweet 16 go outside honey there’s a surprise”. Anyway, my mom decided to change that tradition by not buying me a car for my 16th birthday or at all actually. I will be turning 18 this year and still no car -.-! So unlike the examples I had listed my mom decided to change this tradition based on financial status so I guess that can happen within a culture as well. 4. Culture relativism is the viewpoint that no culture is superior to another culture. Whether that be through morals, laws/policies, or political viewpoints. People believe that all cultures are equal. With cultural relativism people believe all religions, aesthetic, and political views are relative to a person’s cultural identity. For example, everyone or mostly everyone eats breakfast but within different cultures they have their own types of breakfast. No breakfast is better than another’s breakfast but does keep everyone satisfied. Ethnocentrism is the viewpoint that one culture is superior to all cultures. People who are ethnocentric believe they are better than anyone based solely on their own heritage. The viewpoint is also intertwined with racism and prejudice. Ethnocentrism happens everyday in America, white people believe their culture is better than anyone else’s. If a Mexican who is an American citizen decides to speak spanish with a friend or a relative and a white person overhears, they will tell the mexican to go back to their country. Do your research, America doesn’t even have a native language. In order for people to have a better understanding of another culture in which they aren’t familiar with is to not be judgemental. Get a better understanding of another culture, try something new before deciding a culture is not superior to yours. People need to have an open mind, I enjoy talking to my friends who are Russians and Ukrainians and learning about how different our cultures are. If only other people were as open as I am with my friends then maybe people wouldn’t be so judgemental. 5. High culture is more modernized with advanced technology. Everyone has a cell phone or some sort of communicational device to avoid face to face communication with the world. Clothing is more name brand oriented or within the fashion based on social media. Social media is very common, people have either a Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or a Snapchat, or even have all of them. Knowledge is very different because people can just google the answer they are looking for. Low culture is not very modernized with advanced technology. If they do have technology is very limited. Face to face conversation is more likely within a low culture because not everyone has technology. Clothing is just whatever is available even if it has holes in it. Social media is available but not everyone will have one like in the high cultures. The distinctions between high and low culture are important because if someone is unfamiliar with a culture in a way there’s an excuse as to why someone might not be as modernized as everyone else in the world. I definitely think high culture and low culture have remained. To be in a low culture does not specifically mean being poor but I do know some people who are limited to social media because of strict parents. Same as living conditions compared to my house in a nice area and my friend who lives in a not so nice area there’s proof of high and low culture. I’m not trying to brag saying I’m rich and whatnot but I do consider my living conditions as high since I use technology a lot more than my friends who are limited to technology.