This chapter will discourse on the old research on the usage of L1 in ESL schoolroom, reading comprehension and the usage of L1 in reading comprehension. Besides that, it besides reviews about the pros and cons on the usage of L1 in ESL schoolroom.
2.1The usage of L1 in ESL schoolroom
L1 refers to the first linguistic communication of a individual. Each individual will hold their ain first linguistic communication depending on their state of beginning or races. In this research, L1 will be Malay linguistic communication and L2 will be English linguistic communication. Even though there are a batch of arguments and statements about the usage of L1 in the schoolroom among the practicians and research workers, but, we should non straight come out with a decision that the usage of L1 will merely do a batch of negative effects compared to the positive effects. Anh ( 2010 ) carried out a survey that focused on the attitudes of Vietnamese university instructors towards the usage of Vietnamese in learning English. The participants were 12 instructors from three different universities. The research worker used questionnaire and semi-structured interview to roll up the information. Based on the consequences obtained, it shows that the L1, which is Vietnamese, is effectual and systematic in English linguistic communication instruction and acquisition procedure. There is besides another research carried out by Latsanyphone ( 2009 ) which focused on the usage of L1 in learning vocabulary to low English proficiency degree pupils in Laos. There were 169 of a low proficiency degree pupils participated in this survey. The consequences suggest that the usage of L1 to learn English as a foreign linguistic communication helped the pupils to heighten their keeping of new vocabulary points in isolation and besides in context. Based on these surveies, we can see that the usage of L1 might be helpful and utile for the pupils particularly for low proficiency degree pupils. In line with this, Nation et.al ( 2001 ) agreed with many professionals in the field of 2nd linguistic communication acquisition that L1 should be used with pupils who are non extremely adept in the mark linguistic communication. As a instructor, it is our duties to do certain that the pupils will be able to larn and better themselves in the category. We should set the students’ needs at the first topographic point and we must understand that if we straight ban the usage of L1 without even sing about the students’ degree, there could be a opportunity that the pupils might non be able to larn and get every bit much cognition as they can in the L2 schoolroom. The usage of L1 can be considered as one of the utile schemes that intend to assist the pupils to larn and get a 2nd linguistic communication. This is because ; the usage of L1 will be good for the scholars as L1 will do them go more comfy and at the same clip, aid to take down down their anxiousness degree. Meyer and Norman ( as cited in Carson and Kashihara, 2012 ) has mentioned that L1 can be used in the L2 schoolroom as a tool to cut down affectional filters. It is of import for the pupil to hold low affectional filters as it will assist them to larn and get the 2nd linguistic communication faster and in much better manner. Schweers ( as cited in Kavaliauskiene, 2009 ) believes that the usage of L1 in the procedure of acquisition and geting a 2nd linguistic communication will act upon the schoolroom moral force and at the same clip provide the pupils with a sense of security and validate learners’ experiences. As a instructor, it will do some defeat in us if the pupils reluctant to take part in the schoolroom activities that have been prepared earlier merely because they are afraid of doing some errors in forepart of their friends. With the usage of L1, we can really forestall this from go oning in the schoolroom as L1 may increase their ego regard and assurance degree which will promote the pupils to go more active during the 2nd linguistic communication acquisition procedure for case sharing thoughts or information about the lesson that being taught on that peculiar twenty-four hours with the instructor and their schoolmates. In line with this, Harmer ( as cited in Khati, 2011 ) claims that if a instructor uses L1 in the L2 schoolroom, there will be a high engagement from the lower degree of pupils peculiarly in the schoolroom treatment as L1 will avoid them from fighting with English linguistic communication when they want to convey their thoughts. Apart from that, the usage of L1 in the L2 schoolroom is besides utile in easing the pupils in the procedure of acquisition and geting a 2nd linguistic communication. Harmonizing to Mart ( 2013 ) , the usage of L1 in the L2 schoolroom can assist the pupils to see the differences between their female parent lingua and 2nd linguistic communication and do some comparing between these two linguistic communications. As we all know, there are several differences between the regulations in the first and 2nd linguistic communication for case the grammar regulations. It is of import for the pupils to cognize and admit the differences between both linguistic communications as a manner to avoid them from making some mistakes or errors during the 2nd linguistic communication acquisition procedure. In line with this, Nunan and Lamb ( as cited in Mart, 2013 ) states that it is impossible for a instructor to forbid the usage of L1 particularly at lower degrees. If a instructor decides to forestall the pupils from utilizing L1, it might make some jobs during the instruction and larning procedure as the pupils will non be able to understand the lesson and as the consequence, the pupils tend to lose their attending and focal point towards the acquisition procedure. Furthermore, Atkinson ( as cited in Anh, 2010 ) points out that the act of allowing the pupils to utilize L1 in the schoolroom can be regarded as a humanistic attack. The ground behind this is because the usage of L1 gives the chance for the pupils to state what they truly want to state sometimes. He farther explains that the usage of L1 will forestall the pupils from taking a batch of clip for the account intents. Dawson ( as cited in Khati, 2011 ) admits that sometimes, the instructors will seek to forestall their pupils from utilizing L1 in the schoolroom, but they can non forestall pupils from utilizing L1 in their encephalons. This is because, the students’ encephalon infinite is already filed with their female parent lingua that has formed the impersonal webs of their encephalons and their cognition is in L1. The pupils will grok and treat their ideas by utilizing L1.
Despite of the advantages, the usage of L1 in the ESL schoolroom besides has its ain disadvantages. The disadvantages of the usage of L1 in the ESL schoolroom could be due to the ground that there are some instructors or practicians that still believe the usage of monolingual attack or English merely policy in ESL schoolroom is much better compared to the bilingual attack. Demir ( 2010 ) states that even though the usage of L1 is the easiest manner of learning but, it really has affected students’ ability to get the 2nd linguistic communication through natural procedure. This is because ; the pupils tend to interpret all the things about L2 into their native linguistic communication. L1 and the pupils could non be separated as it has ever been in their head. It is rather hard for the instructors or practicians to alter students’ attitude towards the usage of L1 as they have already got used to it. Apart from that, harmonizing to Yamamoto- Wilson ( as cited in Carson and Kashihara, 2012 ) , the usage of L1 in the procedure of larning a 2nd linguistic communication can neglect if the instructor were unable to do meaningful connexions between the L2 and the L1. It is of import for a instructor to do meaningful connexion between the L1 and L2 as it will find the students’ accomplishment in the procedure of acquisition and geting a 2nd linguistic communication. Cook ( as cited in Miles, 2004 ) states that the procedure of interpreting between L1 and L2 will do some misinterpretation among the scholars in which it may do them to believe that both linguistic communications are tantamount to each other. He farther emphasiss that all the facets in the 2nd linguistic communication for illustration grammar points can be taught efficaciously by the mark linguistic communication through the usage of ocular AIDSs. Khati ( 2011 ) carried out a survey on the suited clip and the ground to utilize female parent lingua in ESL schoolroom. The research was conducted in Nepal. The concluding findings suggest that instructor should maintain utilizing English to guarantee that the pupils get the full exposure to the English linguistic communication. Overall, the usage of L1 in the L2 schoolroom has its ain advantages and disadvantages depending on the state of affairs in the schoolroom. The most of import thing before the instructor decides on the attack that they are traveling to utilize in the ESL schoolroom, either bilingual or monolingual, is to place the degree of their pupils so that they can fix the suited stuffs to assist the pupils learn and get the 2nd linguistic communication.
- Reading comprehension
Reading is of import for the hereafter success. Without good reading accomplishments, we might non be able to understand the information or cognition that the writers or authors try to convey through their Hagiographas either in books, magazines, articles or any other reading resources. Inderjit ( 2014 ) defined reading as a cultural activity that has undergone a batch of alterations since its origin. He farther states that reading can assist us to better our linguistic communication and vocabulary. Kucer and Rosenblatt ( as cited in Pourkalhor and Kohan, 2013 ) explain that comprehension occurs in the dealing between the reder and the text. In line with this, Ahmadi and Hairul ( 2012 ) explain that reading comprehension is a hard procedure as it requires pupils to read the written words, understand the vocabularies and cognize the significances of the texts. As we all know, in the procedure of linguistic communication acquisition, there are four chief accomplishments that a pupil must larn and get the hang which are reading, listening, composing and talking. Compared to the other accomplishments, reading is the most of import accomplishment that 1 must get the hang as it will convey a batch of advantages during the learning procedure. Alderson ( as cited in Khodabakhsh, Sadeghi and Bakhshi, 2013 ) states that it is of import for us to grok reading texts that was written by utilizing foreign linguistic communication particularly English. In their survey, the importance of reading is that we can understand the context of the text so that we will be able to place the chief thoughts in certain reading texts. If a pupil has a reading job, this could take to another job particularly in the L2 schoolroom. This is because, if a pupil could non understand the reading texts, he or she will decidedly confront some jobs during the procedure of acquisition and geting a 2nd linguistic communication every bit good as during the concluding scrutiny. The ability to grok reading texts should be developed from clip to clip as it will beneficial for the hereafter.
- The usage of L1 in reading comprehension
It is widely known that the usage of L1 in good in the ESL schoolroom. Many research workers seemed to hold with the fact that the usage of L1 in the ESL schoolroom is important as it helps the pupils in the procedure of acquisition and geting the 2nd linguistic communication. The usage of L1 to help pupils in reading comprehension is something that could non be denied. State ( as cited in Mart, 2013 ) points out that the usage of L1 contributes to the ability to grok the reading texts and it is of import to convey the significance and content of the texts. The usage of L1 in reading comprehension can assist the pupils to grok the reading texts efficaciously without any troubles. Atkinson ( as cited in Bhooth et.al, 2014 ) suggests that the L1 can be used by the pupils to look into the comprehension of the sentence and the reading texts. Several surveies have shown the usage of L1 to help pupils in reading comprehension. Claire ( 1997 ) carried out a research on the usage of first and 2nd linguistic communication in reading comprehension schemes of Nipponese ESL pupils. The participants were divided into two groups, Group 1 and Group 2. The participants were required to utilize believe aloud protocol and retrospective interview. The consequence shows that ESL readers that are less adept rely to their L1 to find the significance of the word and text compared to the more adept ESL readers. Based on this research, we can see that the L1 is utile for the pupils particularly those who are less competent in English linguistic communication in order to grok the reading texts.
Al Jabri ( 2009 ) carried out a survey on the effects of L1 and L2 rubrics on reading comprehension and remembering thoughts among Saudi pupils. Ninety-male pupils participated in this survey. All of them were non-native talkers and they were selected indiscriminately. The participants were so divided into three groups ; English text with L1 rubrics, L2 rubrics and no rubrics. The findings showed that the pupils who read the text with L1 rubrics able to reply more inquiries and they besides can retrieve a batch more thoughts as compared to the other groups who merely managed to reply a few inquiries.
Another research that focuses on the usage of L1 in L2 reading comprehension was conducted by Goh and Fatimah ( 2006 ) . The survey focused on the usage of L1 in L2 reading comprehension among third ESL scholars. Four pupils were selected as the participants and they were required to believe aloud while reading English texts. Based on the information collected, it shows that the L1 was used often by the pupils peculiarly when they were holding some jobs to understand the significance of the reading text provided. Besides that, the consequence indicates that it is better for the instructors to allow the pupils use L1 in the category particularly when they are required to believe aloud. In add-on, the instructor should non set aside the fact that in certain degree, the pupils might necessitate L1 to assist them in deriving information or cognition.
The usage of L1 in an ESL schoolroom can be done through the interlingual rendition activity. Translation is one of the L1 schemes that will be utile for the pupils in the ESL schoolroom. Harmonizing to Ali ( 2012 ) , interlingual rendition is really the act of change overing the look of the mark linguistic communication into the native linguistic communication. Carreres ( as cited in Mogahed, 2011 ) believes that interlingual rendition is utile for linguistic communication acquisition. He farther explains that the usage of interlingual rendition in the linguistic communication schoolroom provide the chance for the pupils to hold treatments every bit good as makes the category go more interesting. Ishraq M.Aqel ( 2013 ) conducted a research about the consequence of utilizing grammar-translation method to get English linguistic communication. The survey was carried out in Jordan and it involved 20 female pupils. The findings indicate that Grammar-Translation method is of import and utile in the procedure of learning English.