The Constitution of Medina is a political document that served an enormous purpose not only during the lifetime of Muhammad but even to this day. The Constitution of Medina was written by Ibn Ishaq after Hijra. Muhammad Ibn Ishaq Ibn Yasar was born around 85 years after Hijra and received data from a previous scholar Muhammad Al-Zuhri that had collected narratives from Muhammad. It is considered to be the first documented law in the early period of the rise of Islam. The Constitution of Medina was a great positive way of setting certain rules and laws resulting in living peacefully in one society regardless of the difference in religion. Prophet Muhammad and his followers which were a small percentage when they migrated from Mecca to Medina (Yathrib) in 622 AD and become known as the Muhajiroun in which they were welcomed by the citizens of Yathrib. Muhammad helped in stabilizing Medina and the citizens helped him and his followers by offering them to live in Yathrib. The motivation that influences Prophet Muhammad to come up with the constitution of Medina was the diversity and different ideologies present in Medina and to make sure what had happened to him and his followers (forced to leave Mecca) does not happen again. The document was divided into three different parts to protect every citizen living in Yathrib during that time. In addition, to avoid any dilemmas that might occur between the Muslims of Quraysh, the Medinan citizens, and the Jews in the society, Prophet Muhammad established the constitution of Medina and by doing so he established coexistence.This document was introduced in the time of war between different tribes before the arrival of Muhammad and the major role for the constitution was to bring all citizens of Medina to be one umma (community) regardless of any differences. We tend to not notice how difficult it must have been for the prophet as a muhajir to Yathrib to have the courage and come up with the constitution that helped the Muslims and the Ansar live together in one community with respect to one another. At a time where people would victimize anyone who would be from a different religion or race, it was almost impossible to live in peace together but Prophet Muhammed accomplished that. Establishing such a constitution reveals the strength of Muhammad and his followers in their faith and the support given to them by Allah (God) because they were a small group of immigrants making enormous changes not only by establishing Medina but also the harmony among the community and the security provided to the citizens. He helped structure Yathrib into becoming a peaceful unified state known as Medina. Muhammed was welcomed to Yathrib due to his well-known skills in trade and solving problems. After the creating the Constitution of Medina Muhammad was seen as a political and spiritual leader a spiritual leader by the Muslims and a political leader by the entire umma (lecture 3). The constitution also provided equality and a degree of freedom for the non-Muslims tribes to practice their religion without any obligations. Before further analysis, going back to Muhammad’s primary motive for writing the constitution was for everyone to live in peace which says a lot about him as a character. Muhammad, he was persecuted and was forced to leave his home in Mecca, yet he was not thinking about revenge like most people might do, instead, as soon as he got to Medina he wanted to spread peace and equality because he did not want anyone to be discriminated the way he was. The constitution of Medina was divided into three parts covering all the essentials of the society. The first portion is for the state meaning all citizens and all factors that might affect the state’s overall condition. Throughout the constitution, there is multiple emphasizes on loyalty in many different forms. Loyalty to the citizens of different ideologies was very important for the structure of Medina. Therefore, Jews have to be loyal to Muslims and vise versa because if one group betrayed the other mutual loyalty would be lost and cause the destruction of many factors within the society. Moreover, loyalty to Medina to protect it from any evil. The second part is exclusively for the Muslims in Medina. Unity, one of the main components in Islam reasons that if someone uproots controversy against the umma, as one, the community should counteract them, which is unity in decision making. In addition, unity is also observable when a Muslim brother is in need, he is supported by the Muslim community, which explains how they grow together as one umma and not as separate individuals that results in the exclusion of the idea of hierarchy. In the constitution, Muhammad highly discourages hierarchy but mentions it very vaguely. When uprisings occur, a higher king or emperor is usually consulted, but within the Muslim community members reach out to Allah and His messenger in times of dispute. This shows that everyone within the community is equal and no one is more superior than the other. The third section of the constitution was for the non-Muslim like the Jews, polytheist and other tribes in Medina. Giving the rest of the citizens different privileges such as the freedom of practicing their own religion and equal political rights as Muslims. By doing so, they provided the citizens of Medina with a sense of security and protection. In the meantime, protection was not the only important factor here but also knowing that they are not being controlled or imprisoned by the Muslims or whoever is in control but instead they shared equal rights as them. Sharing a state with different groups that do not share the same ideology typically results in political problems. However, part of the coexistence that was observed after Prophet Muhammad established the constitution says otherwise. A part of the coexistence came from the respect between the Jews, Quraysh (Muslims), and all the other different tribes although they all do not agree on the same terms when it comes to religion. That shows that not because they do not follow the same religion they do not get respect; respect does not mean accept their belief. The respect they had for each other helped them be a unified nation. The notation of an umma was very significant to the establishment of the constitution. Bringing all the citizens of Yathrib together as one community, this resulted in the formation of a strong centralized state in terms of power. Religion was not a factor in the formation of the umma, but the respect and loyalty the citizens had for Medina were important to them and worth unifying for regardless of their differences. Unifying their loyalties for Medina made the country grow stronger politically. A country with a unified population can face any obstacles and overcome them to protect their land and families in the community but a country that lacks the unity of an umma will not be as strong politically. Throughout the document, certain phrases were repeated many times. The term “Jews” was repeated ten times in the constitutions which indicates that they were the majority of the population and one of the dominant groups at the time. Jews were highly respected by the Muslims because according to the Quran they are the people of the book which have to be respected. Another term that was repeated four times was “friend” which is related to the jews every time it was mentioned in the document. In other words, the Muslims were trying to establish a friendly relationship with the jews and that was an important aspect for the establishment of coexistence. “Loyalty” was another term that was mentioned four times in the document. Everytime loyalty is mention in the constitution it’s introduced along with “protection” that is repeated eleven times. Loyalty can protect not only the citizens but also Medina as a land of harm. Another, way of loyalty is regarding the agreement between the Muslims and the rest of the umma, which is to follow the constitution as a guide to protect everyone’s rights. The citizens of the Medina (Ansars, and the Jewish tribes, and other tribes) agreed on following the Constitution of Medina for two reasons, although they did not believe in Islam nor that Muhammed is the messenger of God. The first reason for accepting the constitution is because they trusted in Muhammad’s fair and right decisions just as he did in previous situations. That trust came from his reputation in Mecca as an honest, and trustworthy man who was a great trader and had great skills when dealing with and solving problems (lecture 5). The second reason is that of the constant dilemmas that were occurring at the time between the different tribes before Hijra, so they lacked living in peace as one community. In the same way, the Madinan citizens needed the help of someone like Prophet Muhammad, the Prophet, and his followers were seeking the help of the residence of the medina. Prophet Muhammad helped the Madinan citizens by establishing peace among the community through the foundation of the constitution. In the meanwhile, the Medinan greeted and provided the Muslims with shelters, and protection after their hijra from Mecca. As a result, a perception of a mutualistic relationship between the Muhajirun and the citizens of Medina. In conclusion, analyzing the primary source of the Constitution of Medina provides an overview of Islam in its earliest form. The purpose of writing the Constitution of Medina was to assist the different tribes in the community in communicating and living in harmony with one another. The peace, love, and equality the Muslims spread was a cause for many citizens of Medina convert to Islam and follow Muhammad. When Muhammad migrated to Medina his followers were a minor group but increased massively through the good deeds and teachings of the Quran. The constitution was written for the Muhajirun, Ansar, and the Jewish tribe in Yathrib, to unify all the different ideologies and become one umma. The Ansar, and the Jewish tribe in Medina accepted the Constitution of Medina because before the arrival of Muhammad they lacked safety and harmony between the tribes. After the establishment of the constitution, there is a transformation within the society such as tribes from different religions working together, communicating with one another, and respecting each other. The Constitution of Medina provided mutual equal benefits to all members of the society. In this analysis paper, one of the main and most important objectives was to construct coexistence among all the citizens of Medina.