There the “skinner box” during the start

There are six different psychological perspectives the first
is behaviourist overall the behaviourist perspective suggests that behaviour is
learnt through our experiences through the environment that we live in
therefore the perspective looks at the nurture side of the nature and nurture
debate. Within the behaviourist perspective there are two theories one was created
by Pavlov he created this theory by observing dogs in the beginning of his
experiment he wanted to observe how dog’s salivation helps them to digest food
after a period of time Pavlov began to notice that the dogs would salivate
before their food arrived. The dogs had associated the food with other stimulus
such as the door opening when the food is being brought to them. Overtime Pavlov
changed the stimulus to a bell every time the food was brought out a bell was
rung the dogs associated the bell with receiving their food and they began to
salivate. He then associated this experiment with humans.

The other theory was created by skinner who created the operant
conditioning theory skinner carried out an experiment on a rat to help him
strengthen his idea. He placed a hungry rat in a box which he called the
“skinner box” during the start of the experiment the rat didn’t move around
much and just stayed in one place but after some time the rat became familiar
with the environment and began to explore. The rat found a lever when it
pressed the lever the food was released the rat know knew that if he wanted
food then he had to press the lever every time the hungry rat was placed in the
skinner box it immediately pressed the lever for food and so the rat had been
conditioned to press the lever when it wanted food.

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Behavioural therapy is based on Pavlov’s classical
conditioning theory. The classical conditioning theory says that we learn
behaviour so through the therapy it would help them to learn acceptable behaviour.
Behavioural therapy only looks at the person current problems and behaviours rather
than focusing on their past and background. There are three different examples
of behavioural therapy which are Systematic Desensitization, Aversion Therapy
and Flooding. The aim of the therapy is to get rid of the stimulus with causes
an undesired response for example if a person with a phobia of spiders saw a
spider they would give an undesired response which could be crying or
screaming.

The aim of aversion therapy is to make the person associate
pain/suffering with a specific stimulus in Keira’s case she is addicted to medication
that she was prescribed. To help her to get rid of the addiction she could see
an aversion therapist. Within the aversion therapy process The therapist will
attach an electric shock machine to Keira and ask her to take the pills that
she would normally take and when she takes a pill she will receive an electric
shock each time and the process will be repeated until there are changes in
Keira’s addiction. Another method used in aversion therapy is giving the
patient a drug which will cause them to vomit this would be affective for
someone who has an alcohol addiction they would take a special kind of drug
then when they have a drink they will vomit this will make the person associate
drinking alcohol with vomiting over time this would make the person not want to
drink anymore.

Advantages of this type of therapy are that there are long
term benefits as people are less likely to want to return to the habit or
addiction as they will have associated it with pain and suffering and will put
them off completely to going back to the same behaviour/habits.