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This chapter
presents the data yielded in the study. 
Also, the analysis and interpretation of the data are discussed in this
chapter.

     Twenty
schools from Region IV-A were chosen for the study. Four schools that satisfied
the criteria set by the researcher were chosen from each of the 5 provinces in
the region via drawing of lots. 

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1. School Objectives vs. CHED and
DEPED Senior High School Objectives

 

To
identify the course objectives for Oral Communication, the course outlines were
requested from the respective colleges and universities.  However, only 14 schools provided the
researcher with a copy of their course outline. 

Table
1 presents the summary of the course objectives lifted from the requested
course syllabi of the schools.

 

 

 

Table
1.Objectives of the Oral Communication Subject of Several Schools in Region
IV-A

 
 

 

OBJECTIVES

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

TOTAL

1.   To acquire understanding of
the nature of Oral Communication and the Theories related to it

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

12

2.  To acquire knowledge of group communication

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

3

3.  To apply good listening habits in all communication situations

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

2

4.  To use non-verbal communication appropriately and ethically

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

7

5.  To employ techniques on good public communication

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

3

6.  To demonstrate ethics in various social gatherings and different
speech communication situations

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

8

7.  To acquire understanding of Dyadic Communication

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

8.  To value the importance of language as God’s gift to share his
message of love and hope to others.

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

9.  To use/apply technology in at least one of the recommended
presentations.

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

10.To develop intense desire to love one’s culture and inculcate the
value of unity

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

11.To develop future professionals who possess good command of the
English Language as well as exude confidence and style.

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

4

12.To use and internalize grammatical forms that go with communication
functions.

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

13.To use English as a second language in different communication
opportunities.

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

 

Legend: A-UB,
B-LSPU, C-SBC, D-PNPA, E-SSC, F-URS-M, G-AUP, H-SPC, I-UPLB, J-CSU, K-LPU,
L-SLSU, M-RC, N-CCL   

 

Among
the objectives cited, the following were common to at least 3 schools:

1. To acquire understanding of the nature of Oral
Communication and the theories related to it;

2. To demonstrate ethics in various social gatherings and
different speech communication situations;

3. To use non-verbal communication appropriately and
ethically;

4. To develop future professionals who possess good command
of the English Language as well as exude confidence and style;

5. To acquire knowledge of group communication; and

6. To employ techniques on good public communication

 

The
first objective (To acquire understanding of the nature of Oral Communication
and the theories related to it) was the most common, with 12 schools having it
as an objective.  The second was common
to 8 schools while the third was common to 7 schools.  On the other hand, the fourth objective was
common to 4 schools, while the fifth and sixth objectives were both common to 3
schools.

The result revealed that oral
communication as a general education subject was viewed as a venue to study
theories on communication rather than an application of these theories to the
various aspects of a man’s life. Although theories are vital in understanding
human communication, applying these theories was far more crucial. As Isagani
Cruz (2011) stated, “General Education on the tertiary level addresses the
development of the human being”. The outcome of the GE subject must be
“appreciation of the human condition, the ability to personally interpret human
experience, the ability to view the contemporary world from both Philippine and
global perspectives, the ability to appreciate and contribute to the artistic
beauty, and the ability to contribute personally and meaningfully to the
development of the Philippines.

     What could be
the best way to achieve these goals than to let the students experience, with a
more purposeful and active observation and participation, the actual various
form of human communication.

     Another
important note to consider is the little importance given to “Listening” as
part of communication. Only two (University of Batangas and University of the
Philippines- Los Baños) among the 14 schools included listening to the course objectives.
Listening is as essential as speaking in the same way that nonverbal cues are
as critical as verbal messages in all types and levels of communication.
Without good listening habits, communication breakdown or misunderstanding is
most likely to occur.

     While majority
of these schools considered the subject a theory-based course, only one school
(University of Rizal System) realized the role of Oral Communication as a
general education course in developing an intense love for Filipino culture and
national unity. This is in accordance with CHED Memorandum Order 59, series of
1996, which states that GE demands an interdisciplinary approach which would
help the students see the human being as an integral person living in both a
national and global community. 
Therefore, a student of this course should be conscious of his “being a
Filipino” and “being a citizen of the world”.

On the other hand, twenty eight
percent (28 %) of the 14 schools saw communication as a means to have better
future jobs as shown in the table. Four schools stated that one of their goals
in offering the subject was to develop future “professionals who possess good
command of the English Language as well as exude confidence and style”. In this
very competitive world, having a good command of the English language and being
able to express thoughts effectively and ethically are ways to land on a job.
As the CHED technical panel stated in Cruz (2011):

 “The objective of
Philippine education (which includes GE courses) on the tertiary level is the
holistic education of the Filipinos who contribute humanely and professionally
to the development of a just and economically-robust society in an
environmentally-sustainable world through competent and innovative leadership,
as well as productive and responsible citizenship”.

 

     Table 2
presents the course objectives/learning outcomes from the HEIs, the Commission
on Higher Education and the Department of Education.

Table 2.
Comparative Analysis of HEI’s Oral Communication Objectives with Objectives of
CHED and Department of Education’s Learning Outcomes

 

COURSE OBJECTIVES OF HEI’S ORAL 
COMMUNCATION
(SUMMARY)

NO. OF HEIs

CMO NO. 20  S. 2013
RELATED LEARNING COMPETENCIES

DepEd CURRICULUM GUIDE: ORAL COMMUNICATION
RELATED LEARNING COMPETENCIES

A.  To acquire understanding of  the
nature of Oral Communication

12

Section
Page 4
General Education
Outcomes

The learner…
·        
Defines communication
·        
Explains the nature and
process of communication.

B.  To demonstrate ethics in various social gatherings and different speech
communication situations

8

Section
Page 4
General Education
Outcomes

·        
Observes the appropriate
language forms in suing a particular speech style.

C.  To use non-verbal communication appropriate and ethically

7

Section
Page 5
General Education
Outcomes

·        
Ascertains the verbal and
non-verbal cues that each speaker uses to achieve his/her purpose.
·        
Exhibits appropriate verbal
and non-verbal behavior in a given speech context.

D.  To develop future professionals who possess good command of the
English language as well as exude confidence and style

4

 
Section 1
Page 5
 
Practical Skills

 
 
X

E.  To acquire knowledge on group communication.

3

 
Section 1
Page 5
 
Practical Skills

·        
Identifies the various types
of speech context:
1.  Intrapersonal
2.  Interpersonal
2.1. Dyad
2.2. Small Group
3.  Public

F.  To employ techniques on good public communication

3

 
Section 1
Page 5
 
Practical Skills

·        
Identifies the various types
of speech context:
1.  Intrapersonal
2.  Interpersonal
2.1.     Dyad
2.2.     Small Group
3.  Public

G.  To acquire understanding of dyadic communication

2

 
Section 1
Page 5
 
Practical Skills

·        
Identifies the various types
of speech context:
1.  Intrapersonal
2.  Interpersonal
2.1.     Dyad
2.2.     Small Group
3.  Public

H.  To value the importance of language as God’s gift to share His message
of love and hope to others

2

 
Section 1
Page 5
 
Personal and
Civic Responsibilities

 
 
X

I.  To use/ apply technology in at least one of the recommended
presentations

1

 
To prepare an audio-visual or web-based presentation

 
X

J.  To develop intense desire to lobe one’s culture and inculcate the
value of unity.

1

 
Section 1
Page 5
 
Personal and
Civic Responsibilities

 
X

K.  To use and internalize grammatical forms that go with communication
functions

1

 
Section 1
Page 5
 
Intellectual
Competencies

·        
Observes the appropriate
language forms using a particular speech style.
·        
Identifies social situations
in which each speech style is appropriate to use.
·        
Responds appropriately and
effectively to a speech act.

L.  To use English as a second language in different communication
opportunities.

1

 
Section 1
Page 5
 
Personal and
Civic Responsibilities

X
(No emphasis on
the sole use of the English Language)

M.  To apply good listening habits

1

 
Section 1
Page 5
 
Personal and Civic Responsibilities

·        
No emphasis on good listening
habits but only on (watching) and listening to sample oral communication
activities.

 

 

Table 2 highlights the analysis of
the course objectives of the school-respondents versus the Commission on Higher
Education (CHED) Memorandum Order (CMO) No. 20 series of 2013 and the learning
competencies stated in the Department of education (DepEd). As evident in the
table, majority of the objectives were in line with the prescribed objectives
of CHED as stipulated in its CMO as well as with the competencies under the
DepEd curriculum guide of the Senior High School Program.

The objectives “To acquire
understanding of the nature of Oral Communication.” and “To demonstrate ethics
in various social gatherings and different speech communication.” are both
under the Section 2, Paragraph 4 of the said CMO and are also specifically
stated in the curriculum guide of the Department of Education.

The same goes for the objectives
“To use non-verbal communication appropriately and ethically.”, “To acquire
knowledge on group communication.”, and “To employ techniques on good public
communication.” are all under the same section paragraph 5 or the Practical
Skills of the CMO. All these are also related to the competencies of the Senior
High School curriculum guide for Oral Communication.

However, there are some objectives
that are specified in the CMO but are not related to any of the competencies of
DepEd. For example, the objectives “To develop future professional who possess
good command of the English language as well as exude confidence and style.”,
“To value the importance of language as God’s gift to share His message of love
and hope to others.”, and “To use/apply technology in at least one of the
recommended presentations” are all under the practical skills and personal and
civic responsibilities, respectively, but are not present in the competencies
in the curriculum guide. This could be an indication of the realization to
revolutionize the basic education system of the country and focus on what seems
to be essential in developing students with communicative competence. On the
other hand, the decision to omit such objectives from the current curriculum
could also mean the difference in the priorities of these two agencies. For
instance, the DepEd curriculum guide does not require its students to make use
of technology, which could also mean that students may opt for the usual
chalk-talk method.

In general, the objectives
developed by the higher institutions were aligned with the competencies
mandated by the Commission on Higher Education and the Department of Education
Oral Communication Curriculum Guide for Senior High School.

 

 

 

 

2. Oral Communication Faculty
Profile

 

The following table, Table 3, presents the frequency
distribution of the male and female teachers of the OCC.

Table 3.
Profile of Teacher-Respondents in Terms of Gender

Gender

Frequency(F)

Percentage (%F)

Female

39

79.59

Male

10

20.41

Total

49

100.00

 

Majority of the
teacher-respondents or almost 80%, as seen in Table 3 above, were females,
while only 20.41% were males. This indicates that the respondents were
dominantly female.

Table 4, on the other hand,
presents the age group and frequency distribution of the teacher-respondents of
the study.

 

 

 

Table 4. Profile of Teacher-Respondents in
Terms of Age

 

Age Group

Frequency (F)

Percentage(%F)

20-25

7

14.29

26-30

7

14.29

31-35

5

10.20

36-40

13

26.53

41-50

5

10.20

>50

12

24.49

Total

49

100.00

 

Thirteen of the teachers
belonged to the 36-40 age group, 12 were more than 50 years old, 7 belonged to
the 20-25 age group, 7 also belonged to the 26-30 group and lastly, 5 belonged
to the 41-50 age group.  Based on the
data, majority of the teacher respondents (30 out of 49 or 61%) were 36 years
of age and older.

The next table presents the
profile of the teachers according to their years of teaching.

Table
5.  Profile of Teacher-Respondents
According to Years of Teaching Experience

Years of  Teaching

Frequency(F)

Percentage(%F)

1-5

13

26.53

6-10

6

12.24

11-15

8

16.32

16-20

10

20.41

21-25

3

6.12

26-30

2

4.08

more than 30

7

14.29

Total

49

100.00

 

The data reveal that almost 27%
of the teachers were relatively new in service (1-5 years) and 12.24% have 6-10
years of teaching experience. On the other hand, a total of 61.22% of the
teachers belonged to 11 to more than 30 years of years of teaching. This
implies that the teachers are well-experienced or seasoned teachers.

Table 6 presents the education
profile of the teacher-respondents.

Table 6. Profile of Teacher-Respondents in
Terms of Highest Educational Attainment

 

Highest Educational Attainment

Frequency

Percentage

Bachelor’s
degree

11

22.45

Master’s
Degree

35

71.43

Doctorate/Ph.D.

3

6.12

Total

49

100.00

 

The table shows that majority
of the teacher-respondents (71.43%) have Master’s degrees while only 3 have
Ph.D. degrees. Eleven of them still did not have a master’s degree.

It is imperative to note that
teachers who were yet to receive their master’s degrees were still handling
classes since the CHED Memorandum Order No. 40, series of 2008 (www.ched.gov.ph), which requires all higher education institutions
faculty members to have at least a master’s degree was only implemented in the
AY 2011-2012, a semester after the data was gathered.

The table below, Table 7
presents the cross tabulation of research outputs and other creative works of
the teacher-respondents.