Throughout with the state universities. Church affiliated

Throughout its history,
Hungary seen many religious shifts and struggles. Historically, main religion
in Hungary since 11 century has always been western Christianity. Until the
reformation that took place in 16 century, most of the Hungarians was catholic.
After that, significant number of population became protestant. The struggle
between Catholics and Protestants took place nearly at the same time with the
Turkish invasion. By the beginning of the 17th century, the Turks conquered
almost the entire country. On the territory of Ottoman Hungary (conquered
southern territories of Hungary), a certain number of Catholic churches were
destroyed or converted to the mosque, part of the population converted to
Islam. Orthodox minorities have also been present in Hungary throughout the
country’s history. According to several researchers, due to its history,
Hungary now has a unique religious situation. The coexistence of Catholics and
Protestants has not always been free of conflict, but has proven to be a
fruitful tension, enriching both national and local culture.1

In contemporary Hungary, churches
are privileged with the exemption of several taxes and fees. For example,
church legal entities do not have to pay local taxes and fees when purchasing
or inheriting real estate or become parties of civil or administrative

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Often the church receives subsidies
from the government. Church providing public services will be entitled to the same
subsidy the state provides for public institutions. Renovation of churches are
often subsidized due to architectural heritage preservation programs. None of
these subsidies is considered funding of cult or core religious activities. Perhaps,
one of the most significant influence of Church is its presence in the sphere
of education. Church affiliated universities that provide courses in secular
subjects are entitled to take part in the system of allocation of
government-funded student places along with the state universities. Church
affiliated schools are also receiving funding same with the state schools to
provide tuition-free education.

Religious instruction in
public schools is provided by religious communities, not by the school. The
instruction is not a part of the school curriculum, the teacher of religion is not
a member of the school staff, grades are not given in school reports, and the
churches decide freely the content of the religion classes as well as their
supervision. Teachers of religion are in church employment; however, the State
provides funding for the churches to pay the teachers. The school has only to
provide an appropriate time for religious classes (this is a difficult issue in
many cases) as well as teaching facilities. Churches are free to expound their
beliefs during the religious classes: they do not have to restrict themselves
to providing neutral education that is merely giving information about religion,
as do the public schools.2

According to the Constitution,
in the Republic of Hungary everyone has the right to freedom of thought,
freedom of conscience and freedom of religion. 
This right shall include the free choice or acceptance of a religion or
belief, and the freedom to publicly or privately express or decline to express,
exercise and teach such religions and beliefs by way of religious actions,
rites or in any other way, either individually or in a group.3

The majority of the
population today identifies themselves as Roman Catholics. They constitute
37.1% of the population. Atheists and Agnostics are 18.2% with the next largest
part being the Reformed Church of Hungary and Other Protestant Christian Denominations
with 13.8% of the population. In addition, there is a Greek Catholic
Cristianity (1.8%) and other religious affiliations (1.9%). 27.2% are

1 Balasz Schanda. Religion and
the secular state in Hungary. Retrieved from

2 Ibid

3 Hungary’s Constitution of
2011. Retrieved from