To at war.These three countries are on

To Assess the violence in the Northern Triangle and suggest measures to establish stability in the region.INTRODUCTIONThe Northern Triangle of Central America consisting of Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador is referred to as the most violent region of the world. Due to the increase in violence perpetrated by armed groups, gangs, organized criminals and drug traffickers the Northern Triangle’s crime rates have skyrocketed by nearly 133%  in the past ten years making it one of the most unsafe places on the planet. Extortion, threats, kidnapping, rape, homicide and forced recruitment of minors are part of everyday life along with widespread violence which has consequently led to a crisis on a scale unprecedented for areas not at war.These three countries are on the brink of a humanitarian disaster, with the situation likely to deteriorate in coming months. The safety of the people who live there is constantly under threat along with their ability to enjoy other basic human rights including the right to freedom of movement and education.BACKGROUNDHISTORICAL BACKGROUNDEL SALVADOR: With disparities in the distribution of land, the contested results of the 1972 election in El Salvador fuelled revolutionary movements. Under a military-civilian junta, army-backed right-wing death squads killed tens of thousands, and by the end of 1980, the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN) had consolidated into a guerrilla force fighting a civil war that left more than 75,000 dead. Peace Accords were signed in 1992, but not before hundreds of thousands had left to neighboring countries HONDURAS following a military coup against the democratically elected president, Ramón Villeda, in 1963, military regimes prevailed until the approval of a new constitution in 1982. The country was used as a base for U.S. support to c fighting the Sandinista regime in Nicaragua in the 1980s, while the government cracked down internally on left-wing activists. During the early 1990s, economic adjustment policies raised poverty, spurring migrant flows northGUATEMALAIn Guatemala, rebels took up arms against the military regimes that followed the U.S.-backed coup in 1954 against democratically elected President Jacobo Árbenz. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, scorched-earth policies produced genocidal levels of violence in predominantly indigenous rural areas, while repression assailed urban civil society. By the signing of Peace Accords in 1996, the conflict had left 200,000 dead and displaced 40,000 beyond the country’s borders, mainly into Mexico, accompanied by a growing flow of economic migrants to the U.S.CURRENT CAUSES:ORGANISED CRIME RINGSCentral America is one of the main shipment routes for drugs entering into the United States. Changes in smuggling routes due to Mexico’s ‘war on drugs’ since 2006 has disturbed the power balance among drug trafficking groups in the Northern Triangle and increased the number, range, and use of weapons thus resulting in a sudden upheaval in crime rates.Strong gang presence in communities often results in competition for territorial and economic control through extortion, kidnapping and the retail sale of illegal drugs. Threats of violence and sexual assault are often tools of neighborhood control, and gang rivalries and revenge killings are commonplaceRival factions like the Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) and Barrio 18 (M18) run extortion rackets and assassins for hire, and recruit heavily from poorer neighborhoods and shanty-towns throughout the region.INCAPABLE AND CORRUPT GOVERNMENT AND LAW ENFORCEMENTDespite stark warnings, governments in the region have been unable to prevent displacement or systematically respond to the immediate needs of families forced to flee their homes. Despite nascent public policies, there are no legal frameworks that specifically promote protection and assistance for displaced people. High levels of distrust, especially of police forces and the army, meaning that families generally do not look to institutional protection when they need help. The very institutions set up to protect them have failed them.Due to weak law enforcement institutions, elevated levels of corruption, and penetration of the state by criminal groups means impunity for crime is extraordinarily high (95percent or more), and disincentives to criminal activity are almost non-existent.  Public confidence in law enforcement is low and crime often goes unreported. As many as 95 percent of crimes go unpunished PDF in some areas, and the public has little trust in the police and security forces. (The police and military were accused of widespread human rights abuses during El Salvador’s and Guatemala’s civil wars.) POVERTY AND EXTORTIONPoverty along with a corrupt law enforcement has to lead to the rapid growth of gang violence in these countries leaving the people both unprotected and powerless against their violent environment. Across the Northern Triangle, small business owners, transport workers, self-employed people and even households are subjected to gang-led protection rackets. Some 79 per cent of registered small businesses in Honduras and 80 per cent of the country’s informal traders report they have been extorted at least once.Salvadorans and Hondurans pay an estimated $390 million, $200 million, and $61 million, respectively, in annual extortion fees POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATESU.S. demand for cocaine and other drugs produced in Latin America is among the highest in the world, and  U.S. and Mexican efforts to interdict drug trafficking in the Caribbean and Mexico has contributed to the trade’s relocation to Central America.Furthermore, the policy of deporting large numbers of young Central Americans in the 1990s and 2000s, many of them already gang members in the United States, helped transfer the problem of violent street gangs from the United States to Central America’s northern trianglerafficking of firearms, especially from the United States, has also contributed to the lethality and morbidity of crime.  Efforts to slow firearms trafficking from the United States have encountered many domestic and political barriers and continues largely unchecked.EFFECT: MIGRATION AND INTERNAL DISPLACEMENT OF THOUSANDS OF PEOPLEWith few options, many flee the region completely. The International Organisation for Migration (IOM) estimates that at least 400,000 migrants try to reach the United States from Central America or Mexico every year.This movement of people is closely linked to widespread violence. To avoid detection, families are forced to pay smugglers, corrupt officials and kidnappers, and are using more dangerous, risky and isolated routes through Mexico.In 2015, the latest year for which data is available, as many as 3.4 million people born in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras were living in the United States, more than double the estimated 1.5 million people in 2000. About 55 percent of them were undocumented.VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMENDue to the extreme violence and instability of environment it’s no surprise that the countries in the Northern Triangle have been ranked as the most dangerous countries in the world for women with their female homicide rates ranking it in the top 4.Increasing rates of domestic violence and gang rapes are forcing women to flee and seek asylum in the United States or Mexico.VIOLATIONS THE CURRENT SITUATION GUATEMALA A distinct approach to gang violence is being attempted in Guatemala, where the attorney general’s office said it is committed to ending law enforcement strategies based on destruction of the enemy. It created in April 2015 a specialised office to combat extortions with separate units dedicated to the MS-13 and the B-18. A hotline to report extortions is permanently available and provides support to victims, while a smartphone app is freely downloadable to prevent extortions. The app uses and updates the attorney general office’s database of phone numbers detected as belonging to extortion racketeers, and can record calls and save the numbers for later criminal investigations. Three big hits against extortion rackets were carried out in Guatemala in 2016, producing 225 captures in total. The joint police and judicial operations “Rescue of the South”, “Rescuing Guatemala”, and “Guatemala is Ours” were based on investigations carried out over several months.EL SALVADOR formation of “social-cleansing” death squads to eliminate gang members, and complicity by security agents in extortions and drug trafficking, has fostered impunity, hostility and incentives to crime. The government claims “extraordinary measures”, including tougher terms of incarceration, are behind the decline in the homicide rate from 103 in 2015 to 81 in 2016, but the maras, who declared a unilateral ceasefire in May 2016, have taken credit for the descent.REACTION FROM THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITYCARSICentral America Regional Security Initiative (CARSI).  1. Create safe streets for the citizens in the region2. Disrupt the movement of criminals and contraband within and between the nations of Central America3. Support the development of strong, capable and accountable Central American governments4. Re-establish effective state presence and security in communities at risk5. Foster enhanced levels of security and rule of law coordination and cooperation between the nations of the region.PREVIOUS ACTION TAKEN BY THE UNITED NATIONSIn January 2017, a six-month mediation mission of the UN Department of Political Affairs, led by Mexican diplomat Benito Andión, was unveiled, with the aim of finding common ground between El Salvador’s two main political parties on an unspecified range of issuesThrough the San Jose Action Statement, the governments of Belize, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama and the United States vowed to work together to strengthen protection of refugees fleeing Central America, according to the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).Funding from UNDP(The United Nations Development Program) has been especially alloted to these countries to stren QUESTIONS THE RESOLUTION MUST ANSWER What can be done to reduce the violence caused by organised crime in the Northern Triangle?How the government of these countries should strive towards winning back the trust of it’s people and weeding out corruption from it’s ranks?How to raise REFERENCEShttps://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/other_situations_of_violence_in_the_northern_triangle_of_central_america_executive_summary_may_2014.pdfhttps://odihpn.org/magazine/humanitarian-response-central-americas-fragile-cities/https://odihpn.org/magazine/central-america-at-the-tipping-point/https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/crime-and-violence-central-americas-northern-triangle-how-us-policy-responses-arehttps://www.crisisgroup.org/latin-america-caribbean/central-america/62-mafia-poor-gang-violence-and-extortion-central-americahttp://reporting.unhcr.org/sites/default/files/Protection%20and%20Solutions%20Strategy%20for%20the%20Northern%20Triangle%20of%20Central%20America%202016-2018.pdf