To learner students in the Government institute

To
investigate the effect of compensatory and remedial teaching strategies on the
slow learner students in the Government institute for slow learners.

 

Slow
Learners

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 Slow Learners Over the years, slow learners
have been labelled with different names like dull, poor achievers,
underperformer, borderline, mentally handicapped, gray-area children, at-risk,
and struggling learners (Kaznowski, 2004). Slow learners try to work up to
their potential but fail to do so and perform below their colleagues. They have
considerable problems in learning. They do not fulfil the criteria to be
considered as special students. Slow learners are the students having below
average mental abilities that are not handicapped but fail to cope with the
normal required academic demands of regular classes. However, slow learners
differ from learning disability students (Okey, 2007).

Learning
process of slow learners:

Learning is an essential but complicated process that
we follow life-long, from the moment we utter our first syllable to the time
when we proudly hold high our college diplomas and beyond. The problem,
however, is that not all children can adapt to a rigid style of learning. Some
children just cannot cope with the fast-paced and rigid approach that is
characteristic of conventional teaching. Due to this, a gap forms between their
true ability and their performance level and such children are then dubbed ‘Slow
Learners’. They differ from average students in the rate of learning and need
much external stimulation/encouragement to do the simple of work (Krishnakumar,
Geeta, & Palat, 2006; Stenhouse, 2005). By expanding the teaching styles,
instructors can support opportunities for students with different learning
styles to increase their learning (Friedman & Alley, 1984). Gregorc and
Ward (1977) recommended that instructors identify the learning styles of the
students, identify their teaching styles and then vary their teaching methods
to meet the range of learner preferences. Hyman and Rosoff (1985) contended
that matching learning style with teaching style will augment achievement.
According to Henson and Borthwick (1984) learners have their own preferred learning
styles, and instructors have a responsibility for gearing up their teaching
styles to fit the learning style of the learners. Various researchers have
suggested that matching instructors’ preferred teaching style to students’
preferred learning styles will produce higher academic success as measured by
final exam scores (Van Vuren, 1992). Most researchers agree that further study
is needed in the area of identifying learning styles, teaching styles, and the
significance of a match between the two and student academic success.

To ensure slow learners’ success in schools, their
rate of slower learning needs to be accommodated through specifically designed
interventions in accordance with their ability level (Shaw, 2008).

Compensatory
teaching.

Compensatory teaching is an instructional approach
that alters the presentation of content to circumvent a student’s fundamental
weakness or deficiency. Compensatory
teaching recognizes content, transmits through alternate modalities (pictures
versus words) and supplements it with additional learning resources and
activities (learning centers and simulations, group discussions and
co-operative learning). This may involve modifying an  instructional technique by including a visual
representation of content, by using more flexible instructional presentations
(films, pictures, illustrations) or by shifting to alternate instructional
formats (self-paced texts, simulations, experience-oriented workbooks) (K.
Dasaradhi Feb 2016)

 

Remedial
Teaching

This is an alternate approach for the regular
classroom teacher in instructing the slow learner. Remedial teaching is the use
of activities, techniques and practices to eliminate weaknesses or deficiencies
that the slow learner is known to have. For example deficiencies in basic math
skills are reduced or eliminated by re-teaching the content that was not
learned . The instructional environment does not change as in the compensatory
approach. Conventional instructional techniques such as drill and practice
might be employed. (K. Dasaradhi Feb 2016)

GOVT. INSTITUTE FOR SLOW LEARNER

In
Pakistan at the time of independence there were only two institutions, one for
the hearing impaired in Lahore and the other for the blind in Bahawalpur,
functioning under the control of Education Department. A few institutions for
the hearing impaired children and visually impaired children were also being
run by the private sector organizations in the province. Inspectorate of
Schools for the Deaf, Dumb and Blind was established under the Education
Department during 1962. It was given status of Deaf, Dumb and Blind Wing,
headed by a Deputy Director during 1968. These institutions were nationalized
in 1975 under Martial Law Regulation MLR-118. The Education Department took
over these institutions and initiated various schemes for construction of
buildings and to staff them with trained teachers. Directorate of Special
Education Punjab was given the status of an attached department of the
Education Department during 1983-84. Special Education Department was
established as an independent administrative department during 2003-04. Prior
to establishment of an independent department of Special Education Department,
there were 51 institutions in the province with an enrollment of 4265 special
children, which has now risen to 248 catering almost 28850 special children;
including 20 institutions of special education devolved from Federal Government
as a result of the 18th Constitutional Amendment. At present, special
institutions are functioning at every tehsil and town. level.http://directory.nowpdp.org/item/govt-institute-for-slow-learner-8/

Although
the scope of special education is expanding country wide. In Punjab Government
institutes for slow learners are working at district level each district has
one Government institute for slow learner but the specific area of slow
learners education has still limitations. Chief Minister Punjab has failed to
meet expectations of slow learners. For example, no serious effort has been
made in recruiting qualified and trained teachers to deal with the problem of
dropouts. The Punjab education department has failed to understand that the
problem of high dropouts cannot be addressed through routine measures. The
existing teaching staff is not trained to deal with slow learners. Resultantly,
the slow learners are being ignored in mainstream education system.(ASHBA
KAMRAN JANUARY 24, 2012 BY PAKISTANTODAY)

 

Recruitment of teachers for slow
learners: SHC issues notices to PSC, Punjab government

 RECORDER
REPORT MAY
3RD, 2008 LAHORE

Lahore High Court has issued notices to the Public
Service Commission and the Punjab government on a constitutional petition of
Special Education Welfare Association of Professionals challenging the
advertisements for recruitment on 35 post of headmaster at the district level
and 350 posts of teachers in public institutes for slow learners.

The counsel for the petitioner, Muqtedir Akhtar Shabir Advocate, argued that
the qualification fixed by the Government of Punjab for the head masters was
M.A., M.Ed. or M.A. Psychology and M.A. M.Ed. or M.A. Psychology, B.Ed for the
teachers. The counsel argued that the petitioner held a Masters degree in the
special education and a post-Master diploma in teaching the deaf.

He stated that the advertisement had made the petitioners and those concerned
in any manner with the special education utterly surprised since the academic
qualification of MA Education, M.Ed., M.A. Psychology and B.Ed. was not
relevant with the teaching in or administering the schools of special
education. Not only that but the qualification of” M.A. Special
Education” or P.G.D.T.D. was excluded from the prescribed qualification
for recruitment on posts in question, despite the fact that these professional
qualification were the most suitable ones for the posts of teachers and head
teachers for the students with the learning disability…https://fp.brecorder.com/2008/05/20080503732517/

Researches:

 Romaine P. Mackie And Julia W.
Reynolds April 1968) discuss The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965
provided additional funds for developing and strengthening programs for
handicapped children and youth. Title I of this Act focuses on compensatory
education programs. This article gives examples of the wide range of activities
for handicapped children made possible through Title I of ESEA. Major areas
discussed in this article are: (a) recruitment of personnel and professional
inservice training, (b) curriculum development and improvement, (c) diagnostic
services, (d) equipment and transportation, and (e) cooperative activities.

Little, Susan E.,(2000) his study  found that slow learners’ academic achievement
could be raised when compared with those scores achieved the previous school
year. This was produced through increases in remediation services, additional
instructional programs, and pertinent intervention strategies.

Research
aims at helping the teachers to handle the slow learners in an appropriate way
thereby increasing the learning capability of the slow learners making teaching-learning
more purposeful (K. Dasaradhi 2016).

 

Rashmi Rekha Borah
Assistant Professor, Dept. Eng., AVIT,(2016) concludes that objective
of the paper is to create greater awareness and discussion about slow learners.
Learners in this category will exist in almost every class, yet at present a
systematic way of identifying and supporting them does not exist. There is no
doubt that the individual teachers have developed many effective techniques for
supporting those learners who need additional help. It would be valuable
therefore if opportunities could be created for teachers to share and discuss
their work with slow learners. It is also important for further research to
build on this initial study to develop guidelines to assist teachers in
supporting slow learners.

Shakuntala Payneeandya (2014) The aim of the research
was to analyse to what extent the implementation of an interventional
compensatory action has helped in the transformation of teachers in classroom
practices in their beliefs about teaching and learning .The impact of the
pedagogical intervention has been assessed on the degree of transformation
observed among the different types of teachers.

Penelope
L. Peterson (08 Jun 2010) In this keynote review was
drawn from  recent theory and research on
individual differences, learning, and instruction to answer questions about the
selection of students and the provision of services in compensatory education.

A
speculative model, the interactive compensatory model of learning (ICML), is
based upon a synthesis of the very diverse education research literature. It
conceptually unifies seemingly conflicting elements. The model suggests: (a)
many skills make important contributions to learning; (b) no single skill can
support totally or interfere with self-regulated learning; (c) effective
learning depends on the dynamic interrelationship among existing knowledge,
including a variety of learning skills; (d) it is possible for most learners to
compensate for weaknesses in one area using strengths in other areas; and (e)
it is possible to improve skills through classroom instruction. “Kent
J. Crippen ; Gregory
Schraw ; David
W. Brooks

J. Chem.
Educ., 2005”.

(1 Shafqat Ali Khan, *2 Rana Navid Ahmad June 2014) Data
analysis reveals that cooperative learning was more effective instructional
paradigm for English as compared to the traditional method of teaching.

Najma Iqbal Malik ;Ghazala Rehman
and Rubina Hanif (2012) their research’s quantitative analyses
revealed that academic interventions were highly effective in enhancing the
developmental skills of slow learners’ adaptive, communication, and cognitive
developmental skills. However, these interventions remained silent and failed
to show any positive effect on personalsocial and motor skills.

There is no enough published date has been found in
developing countries like Pakistan that have shown the precise teaching
strategies which will give excellent output.The present study seeks
to address this knowledge gap in Pakistan. Through reporting the outcomes of
this research process in a more detailed and manner it will open diverse
research opportunities for future researchers.

This research is an effort to assess the effect of
compensatory and remidial teaching strategies on the slow learner students in
the government institues for slow learners

 

Rationale:

Many researches are being conducted on the issues of education of slow
learners, their assessment placement and teaching methodologies. The existing
teaching practices in slow learner institutes are mainly of traditional ones or
some how remedial one in nature decided by the teacher herself not a specified
and precise. There is a need to explore the more accurate and precise teaching
strategies which help the educators to enhance the academic success of these
slow learner students and excel their performance. So the research towards
investigating the effects of compensatory and remidial teaching strategies on the
slow learner students in the government institues for slow learners will add
the valuable information regarding enhancing academic success of these
students. Which is the objective of this research.

Statement
of Problem:

 To investigate the effect
of compensatory and remedial teaching strategies on the slow learner students
in the Government institute for slow learners.

Hypothesis:

           Keeping in view the literature review, following hypothesis for the
current study are formed.

·        
The remedial teaching strategies are not producing
desired learning outcomes in slow learner students.

·        
The compensatory teaching strategies are more
effective to enhance academic achievement of the slow learner students.

 

 

Procedure:

Study is experimental in nature. The experiment will b
conducted in the Government institute for slow learner Rawalpindi. Grade level
one to five all students in the classes were subjected

Written informed consent from the schools, teachers
and parent of slow learners was obtained before the start of this intervention
program. At first step after sample selection of all slow learners, baseline
measurement (pre-test) of English subject skills was carried out and slow
learners were assessed through 
Pre-test  to check the current
level of performance from the students along with the teacher’s appraisal and
previous report cards  prior to
interventions. The teachers (n = 5) for interventions had the education level
of MA or Master of Education and were acknowledged by their school
administration for having good communication skills and tactfulness in dealing
with challenging situations. Prior to intervention they received a six-day
training program that was inspired by teaching aid manuals of UNESCO (2007) and
UNICEF (2007), and Shaw’s guide of educational programming framework (2005,
2008, & 2010) and teaching resources for teaching slow learners (Shaw,
2001). Teachers’ training will be carried out to ensure the proper
implementation of intervention plan. . At third step, after the completion of the
intervention period, second baseline measurement (post-test) of  skills of slow learners will be taken to assess
the difference between two baseline measurements as an effect of academic
intervention.