Traditional Food Plants Of Latin America Biology Essay

The Italo-Latin American Society of Ethnomedicine, is an international non-profit organisation dedicated to progressing scientific discipline around the universe by functioning as an pedagogue, leader, interpreter and professional association. The cardinal nonsubjective ofA SILAEA is to advance the research, development and usage of medicative and nutrient workss in different states of the Word. SILAE welcomes and actively seeks chances to work hand in glove, triping and escalating scientific dealingss between Countries and between SILAE Members. Since SILAE was founded ( 1990 ) its aim has been set to lend to the close scrutiny of the subjects of great involvement and actuality in the context of the relationships between Latin America and European Union. In add-on to this it aimed to individualise new ways of coaction among its member states, besides in the amplest frame of the European every bit good as Asian continent to subscribe under such agreements with intergovernmental beings. SILAE proposes toA set up contactsA with Scientific Communities, Universities, Research Centres for the chase of medicative and nutrient workss cognition. MoreoverA SILAE_live, theA one-to-one unrecorded Chat and MessengerA on our web site ( www.silae.it ) , is the first scientific confab on the web and is a developed tool to prosecute the involvement and imaginativeness of the populace and assisting non-scientists to understand and bask scientific finds and the scientific procedure. In add-on to forming rank activities, SILAE publishes the SILAE Special Issues, every bit good as many scientific newssheets, books and studies, and spearheads plans that raise the saloon of understanding for scientific discipline worldwide.

About Latin American Food Plants

Over the class of 1000s of old ages, American autochthonal peoples domesticated, bred and cultivated a big array of works species. These species now constitute 50-60 % of all harvests in cultivation worldwide. The murphy has been the topic of international harvest development and is now normally grown throughout the universe. The tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) is native to Mexico but many assortments are found in the Andes.A There are, nevertheless, many other of import nutrient harvests that were domesticated in the Andes but that are ill known scientifically.A Ullucus tuberosusA ( Basellaceae ) , A Oxalis Polianthes tuberosa, ( Oxalidaceae ) , Tropaeolum tuberosum ( Tropaeolaceae ) , Arracacia xanthorrizaA ( Apiaceae ) , A Canna edulisA ( Cannaceae ) , A Lepidium meyeniiA ( Brassicaceae ) , Mirabilis sweep ( Nyctaginaceae ) andA Polymnia sonchifoliaA ( Asteraceae ) . Each of these harvests is a possible new harvest for other countries of the universe. Other of import harvests include the high protein pseudograins, A ChenopodiumA quinoaA Willd. ( Chenopodiaceae ) , A C. pallidicaule, Amaranthus caudatus ( Amarantaceae ) and a high protein leguminous plant, A Lupinus mutabilisA ( Fabaceae ) . As a group, these tuber, grain leguminous plant and other harvests have been among the primary nutrient beginnings in the upland Andean part for centuries. All this harvests have been confined to their naif Andean place. The Andean part of South America is one of the eight centres of diverseness of cultivated workss described by Vavilov. At least 30 species of root and tuber harvests are native of South America. They belong to 18 botanical genera and 16 households including mono/ and magnoliopsids. This represents a greater scope of root and tuber harvest diverseness in footings of systematic association and ecological version than occurs anyplace else in the universe.

There are many workss, trees and fruits that can be used as a beginning of nutrient in tropical rainforests.A The jippi jappa Palm ( Sabal Mexicana, Palmaceae ) is an of import works used by Mopan Mayan and Kekchi Indian People. TheA drupesA andA thenar heartsA are eaten The waree thenar ( Astrocaryum mexicanum, Palmaceae ) is found in copiousness in the rain forest is a thenar of theA CaribbeanA seashore of Central America. The fruit and seeds are used for human nutrient and oil production.A The bosom of thenar can be eaten every bit good as a portion inside the flower shell and the flower itself which provides a batch of nutrient. Bactris majorA ( common name kawmaka, Arecaceae ) is a little to medium sized ( 1-10 m tall ) A spinyA palmA which ranges fromA Mexico, throughA Central AmericaA into northernA South America andA Trinidad. The fruits are eaten or used to season drinks. Bactris gasipaes, besides known in Costa Rica as pejibaye, chontaduro in Venezuela, piba in Panama , pupunha in Brazil and spill the beans thenar in English-speaking states, has of import nutritionary value, chiefly due to the presence of amylum and oils, and high energetic content, similar to the 1 obtained from maize.

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Bananas, java, and chocolate trees are the main harvests of Central America but non-traditional harvests for export have played an progressively of import function in Central America ‘s economic development since 1983. This comparatively new market-driven development chance has represented the fastest spread outing sector of the agricultural industries in Central America, with an mean one-year growing rate of 16 % between 1983and 1997. Gliricidia sepium ( common name, madre chocolate tree ) is a tree, 3 to 10 m in high, belonging to the familyA Fabaceae. It is native to both seashores of Mexico from above the center of the state due south and through Central America to Colombia and Venezuela. G. sepium is used both medicinally and for cowss feeding on the Pacific seashore of Mexico, Central America and in tropical parts of South America and Asia. Its foliages are by and large considered to be one of the most digestible of the tropical leguminous eatages and incorporate a high content of readily degradable proteins and saccharides. It is considered as the 2nd most of import multi-purpose leguminous plant tree, surpassed merely byA Leucaena leucocephala. Leafs and root contains saponins, isoflavonoids and flavonoids. Byrsonima crassifoliaA household Malpighiaceae is native to tropicalA America. It is valued for its little, sweet, yellowA fruit, which are strongly scented. The tree is native and abundant in the natural state from centralA Mexico, throughA Central America, toA Peru, A BoliviaA andA Brazil ; it besides occurs inA Caribbean Isles. The fruits, besides called fagot, are eaten natural or cooked as sweet. In rural Panama, the sweet prepared with the add-on of sugar and flour, known asA pesada de fagot, A is rather popular. The fruits are besides made intoA dulce de fagot, A a confect prepared with the fruit cooked in sugar and H2O.

Many harvests foremost domesticated by autochthonal Americans are now produced and/or used globally. Chief among these is maize, the most of import harvest in the universe. Other important harvests include manioc, squash ( Cucurbita pepos, courgette, marrow, acorn and butternut squash ) , the Phaseolus beans, tomato, murphies, alligator pear, peanuts, chocolate, gum elastic, cassava, and some species of cotton.

Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture Special Issue

The Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture is printing a particular issue, that is, a Hot Topic entitled “ Traditional Food Plants of Latin America. Chemistry, Nutritional Value and Biological Properties ” . Ten documents are included in this HT focussing in assorted facets related to nutrient and nutrient workss. For 1000s of old ages, workss have been an built-in beginning of nutrient for worlds. Around the universe, certain veggies grew in popularity due to their easiness of cultivation, while others became progressively rare. Pre-columbian civilizations domesticated legion workss, such as maize ( corn ) , murphies, manioc, and bean, which when introduced in the Old Word, became dietetic basics at that place and revolutionized the word ‘s nutrient supplies. Today, nutrient partisans have renewed involvement in many of the universe ‘s rare works nutrients by advancing their cultivation and usage, protecting these scarce species from extinction. The particular issue provided an chance for publication of original peer-reviewed full-length research and reappraisal articles on new research on workss, trees and fruits that can be used as a beginning of nutrient in Latin America: three documents present ethnopharmacological consequences and biological value of medicative and nutrient workss used in Cuba, Argentina and Manaus, one spring informations on sustainable direction in pecan cultivation in Argentina, four other article covering with antibacterial activity and cardiovascular effects and chemical composing of some workss used as nutrient ( Anacardium excelsum and Piper tuberculatum ) or for insecticidal belongingss ( Helenium mexicanum and Acmella radicans ) . An presents the amino acid and mineral composings and proximate analysis of five land and aquatic species of insects.

The first article is a reappraisal articles by Martinez Pacheco et Al. [ 1 ] covering with avocado fruit and folates pathway in workss. Persea Americana is a species used by the hereditary pre-Columbian Cardinal American civilizations until today, which have lived on the isthmus linking the mainland parts North and South of the Continent American. Its importance is due to the culinary belongingss, its usage in traditional medical specialty, and for the physical and mechanical belongingss of its wood. The alligator pear is a fruit that has great importance in agribusiness and regional economic system. Mexico is the major manufacturer, consumer and exporter of alligator pear fruit, and holds the first topographic point in production with 34 % in planetary ranks. Avocados contain more folate per ounce than any other fruit, with 45 mcgs per half cup. Folic acid is a cardinal prenatal food which produces and maintains new cells.

The article by Maykel Perez et Al [ 2 ] nowadayss the diuretic activity of six medicative and nutrient workss used by the Cuban population: Ocimum basilicum L, Parthenium hysterophorus L. ( medicative workss ) , Justicia pectoral muscle Jacq. , Plectranthus amboinicus ( Lour. ) Spreng. , Allium cepa L and Citrus aurantium L. In Cuba exists about 179 medicative workss which are known because of their diuretic belongingss. Cuba has developed a comparatively sophisticated pharmaceutical sector, originally to supply medicative merchandises for her ain population and, more late, to gain difficult currency through exports. The importance of this sector has peculiarly to be seen with regard to the strong alterations which have been taken topographic point in Cuba in the last decennaries and which still carry on. Writers observed an addition of the urine volume in treated groups ( aqueous infusions and in the instance of the Allium cepa and Citrus aurantium their natural juice ) in relation with the negative control group. Urinary elimination and diuretic activity were superior in the experimental groups matching to Ocimun basilicum L. and Allium cepa L and similar to furosemide. Sharry et Al. [ 3 ] provide informations on nutrient and medicative value of some forest species from Buenos Aires. The native woods of Buenos Aires state are purely confined to the coastal strip of Rio de la Plata ( fringy woods and talares woods ) and to the Western part ( calden woods ) . Species found in the Talares and fringy wood include Celtis tala ( tala ) , Scutia buxifolia ( coronillo ) , Jodina rhombifolia ( sombra de toro ) , Schinus longifolius ( pepper tree ) , Sambucus australis ( sauco ) , Erythrina crista galli, Sesbania punicea ( acacia mansa ) , Phytolacca tetramera ( ombusillo ) and Parkinsonia acculeata ( cina cina ) , Salix humboldtiana ( sauce ) , Citharexylum montevidensis ( espina de banado ) between others. These species have traditional utilizations as medicative and nutrient and there is small information on the biological science and extension systems of these native tree species. Writers developing a germoplasm bank in forest native species from “ Talares ” and fringy wood utilizing several tools, including biotechnology. Costa and Nunez [ 4 ] present some natural merchandises and their use in Manaus, the largest urban market in the cardinal Brazilian Amazon. Their survey aimed to study the provincials or household farms production, and how they form connexions that result in a rural-urban spatial property. Giuffre et Al. [ 5 ] dedicated their article to the Pecan nut ( Carya illinoinensi ) . Pecans were one of the most late domesticated major harvests. Although wild pecans were well-known among theA colonial AmericansA as a daintiness, the commercial growth of pecans in the United States did non get down until the 1880s. Today, the U.S. produces between 80 % and 95 % of the universe ‘s pecans, with an one-year harvest of 150-200 thousand dozenss. The aims of the work were to compare organic amendments compost and vermicompost, with liquid fertiliser and a control without fertilisation in a annual harvest, and their effects on dirt and works development. The application of organic amendments reduced alterations in dirt belongingss and works public presentation. Pecans are a good beginning ofA proteinA and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Celis et Al. [ 6 ] measure the antimicrobic activity of secondary metabolites nowadayss in infusions and fractions of Anacardium excelsum ( Anacardeaceae ) , utilizing agar good diffusion check and bioautography. As a general consequence was determined that Anacardium excelsum has good antimicrobic activity against gm positive micro-organism. Phenolic compounds determined by GCMS seem to be responsible of this activity. Besides Salgado Garciglia et Al. [ 7 ] assess the antibacterial activity of flowers infusions from H. mexicanum on 10 human pathogen bacteriums by disc-diffusion, broth dilution and bioautographic methods. Eight different infusions were obtained from H. mexicanum flowers and the antibacterial activity was evaluated. Sesquiterpene lactons may be the chief compounds responsible for the antibiotic activity. Araujo Junio et Al. [ 8 ] studied the cardiovascular activity of the fraction incorporating two amides, piperine and piperdardine ( PTPP ) isolated from Piper tuberculatum. Intravenous injection of PTPP in normotensive rats reduced the diastolic blood force per unit area and bosom hatred in a dose dependent mode. At the terminal of the survey writers suggest that the hypotension and bradicardia observed after PTPP is likely due to direct cardiac activation and as a consequence of a direct spasmolytic consequence. The same writers antecedently described for the first clip the isolation and structural elucidation of the amide piperdardine, from the roots of Piper tuberculatum, a bush happening in the tropical wood of Brazil. The species of Piper are good known for its usage as a nutrient flavorer agent. Rios Chavez et Al. [ 9 ] dedicated their article to the synthesis of the chief alkamides during the grown of Acmella radicans. Alkamide content in EtOH infusions was evaluated every hebdomad during six months by GCMS. Many of the species incorporating alkamides have been used in traditional medical specialty of different civilisations. Some species have been used to the intervention of odontalgias and sore pharynxs. Other biological activities are: insecticidal, fungicide, mulluscicidal, antimicrobic. Writers demonstrated that alkamides production was different along the development of A. radicans. Affinin was the first alkamide synthesis and predominant during all development phases of the works, this alkamide presented three extremums. In the aerial parts and the flower heads the chief alkamides were N-isobutyl- ( 2E,6Z,8E ) -decatrienamide ( affinin ) and 3-phenyl-N- ( 2-phenylethyl ) -2- propenamide. These alkamides degrees were 10 crease higher in the flower caputs than in aerial parts.

The article by Melo et Al. [ 10 ] nowadayss the proximal analysis and the amino acid and mineral composings of five land and aquatic species of insects. Many species of insects ( likely 1000 or more ) have served as traditional nutrients among autochthonal peoples, particularly in warmer climates, and the insects have played an of import function in the history of human nutrition. As portion of the hunter-gatherer manner of life, the chief standards for choice of these traditional species appear to be medium-to-large size and easy handiness, i.e. , copiousness. Insects are eaten in Mexico and all over the universe since antediluvian times and consumed in rural countries and in urban metropoliss at high category eating houses, with a great demand.

This particular issue service to excite the surveies on these countries that are highly of import for academe and industry. We thank the subscribers who gave so liberally of their clip and experience and who made this publication a valuable tool for scientists in the field of agricultural and nutrient workss chemical science and biological science. We are really thankful to the Faculty of Food and Agriculture, United Arab Emirates University and Editors of theA Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture for encompassing this undertaking with involvement and enthusiasm, for the chance to print this Particular Issue and in peculiar for the valuable input from the editor Dr. Abdul Jaleel Cheruth.