Construction undertakings are complex working status. It is because they involve many human and non-human factors and variables. They normally have continuance long clip period, the uncertainnesss and complex relationship between participants. Much Thingss need to alter the existent state of affairs of building undertakings. Even the most thoughtful undertakings may necessitate alteration due to assorted factors.
In Hong Kong causes of an unwanted discrepancy of stuff cost of a building undertaking are based two factors. It divided to monetary value discrepancy and measure discrepancy. It sub-divided have three basic indispensable elements. It includes how many supply and demand beginnings with between provider and purchaser, production supply speed with entire sum of stuff resource in the universe. It will direct or indirect to alter the discrepancy of stuff cost of a building undertaking in Hong Kong.
1.1 Supply and demand demand status
In Hong Kong many building stuff is come from other states such as Thailand, China, Japan, and Italy etc. , It cause the stuff cost would be easy adjust by the provider control. When have many purchasers to secure their stuff at the same clip. The providers will set a higher cost to sell for purchasers ( refer. fig 1 ) . At this state of affairs, the building cost will besides increase for the undertaking. Therefore, project direction squads must hold the ability to react to fluctuations efficaciously in order to minimise their inauspicious impact to the undertaking. They need prevent over budget into the undertaking.
However, most developers will still go on to reassign extra costs to end-users relate to buy monetary value up stuff costs. In conversely, If developer or contractor to cut down purchase those edifice stuffs so provider will besides diminish the stuff cost monetary value to purchaser. But the adjust cost monetary value is really little. As a consequence, it causes unbalance societal phenomenon due to between developer and supplier command the material monetary value and constructing belongings market monetary value.
On the other manus, the stuff cost discrepancy is come from different states the different economic and selling factors. It includes have rising prices, addition in involvement, alteration in exchange rate, market recession, strong competition from challengers etc. , It will alter the stuff cost discrepancy rise or bead for the undertaking.
1.2 Amount of stuff resource
Many stuff cost is depending on the universe sum of resource such as Cu, steel, aluminium etc. , Material monetary value fluctuations are affected by the sum of resources in the universe. This means that a little sum of stuffs in Earth will be higher sell monetary value. When the figure of production or natural stuffs is less than the end product so the monetary values will increase in the market for sale. This common logic can non be changed it.
The developers merely before the building phase changes the original of expensive stuffs replace other types of inexpensive stuffs for used. In this manner, undertaking squads can be keep the building cost to go on building of the edifice under budget history. Otherwise, the consequence of the contractor will postpone the completed clip and diminish the quality criterion and over budget for the undertaking.
Undesirable discrepancy of stuff cost may do important accommodations to the undertaking clip, cost and quality. However, the undertaking squad can administrate a good mechanism to cover with the discrepancy of stuff cost and based on past undertakings reappraisal and mention to work out this job. For an illustration the contractor/ developer can do a contract understanding sing the stuff cost and measure can non be changed with providers. This method can work out the stuff cost fluctuate affect to the entire building cost. In these standards, the contractor can accomplish the client demand for the whole undertaking.
1.4 Reference figure
Highest point of cost of stuff
( Beginning from: RLB-QuarterlyHongKongConstructionCostReport-March2010 ) ( Fig 1 )
Maximal monetary value: This is because many undertakings in the same period use this stuff. It caused the monetary values of stuffs continue to lift.
Hong Kong ‘s building industry has a really hapless safety path record as comparison with other states such as Japan, Singapore and England ( refer fig 2-4 ) . The chiefly cause arise from different facet. It includes carelessness of building workers, multi-layer of sub-contracting system, tight working status, deficient counsel and supervising by supervisory staff, unequal fiscal, proficient and moral support from senior direction, untidiness on site, hapless coordination between sub-contractors, and design mistake.
2.1 The chief safety issues includes have:
2.11 Multi-layer of sub-contracting system
The nature of Hong Kong building industry is its farm outing system. Main contractor involve employ to hold many trades sub-contractor together for development of edifice. For illustration: Laying and hardening of concrete, bending and repair of steel support saloon, hard-on of lumber formwork, and stick oning work, etc. , The ground is that the chief contractor can non set about different types of proficient work and much hard currency flow at the same clip. However when usage of many trades of sub-contractor for building of work. This is non contributing to communicating and safety related information and coordination of site activities. It is because when an accident or improper working visual aspect, the chief contractor has is indirect or trouble to inform that relates sub-contractor ‘s workers. It lead to chief contractor can non quash or diminish the accident occurs.
2.12 Tight working conditions
In Hong Kong, the building period is rather short of the building undertakings. A typical 40 narratives high-rise edifice undertaking is necessitate the building period about two old ages. The concrete casting rhythm of structural floors would be 4 to 5 yearss. It is compare with other states is really tight. Furthermore workers in Hong Kong the on the job clip are mean of 48 hours per hebdomad. The other states the on the job clip are mean 40 hours per hebdomad. Those consequences will impact the workers really tired and high force per unit area in the work. It cause an accident easy occur. It is because a tight working status frequently induces deficiency of safety safeguard. A typical illustration is worker every bit shortly as possible making his plants without wear safety belt to put to death their working at tallness ( mention fig 5 ) . As a consequence the worker to be decease from non careful falling down.
2.13 Poor direction and deficiency of resource
All entree or passageway should be decently maintained and clear of obstructor. However in Hong Kong ‘s building industry the chief contractor can non accomplish clear of obstructor at every topographic point. They can concentrate the busy with common usage the entree route merely. The ground is chief contractor are deficiency of manpower resource to put to death maintain cleansing. Many trades of sub-contractor are bring forthing building waste and general trash in the building site. But the building waste and rubbish green goods are faster than chief contractor ‘s workers cleaning. Therefore, concealed or non normally used entree route frequently will be unsafe or accident when anyone through this tract.
Hong Kong to better the hapless safety records how to cover with this job. It should from several facets procedure. Is come from Government, Employer and Employee are common liability. Government such as Labour section has less safety publicity to public cognize the building safety importance. Few of his safety forces to the site reviews and the review clip is really short on the building sites. These are the indirect cause of the accidents in Hong Kong. Employers and employees should be following with safety statute law to transport out the undertaking in the building site. Employers should supply equal safety environment status, safety preparation to employees for building.
But employers frequently said the advancement is really tight of building. It causes frequently neglect the importance of security, taking many workers to accidents. Employees when unsafe environments appear, they should instantly halt all the work and advise the employer to better the unsafe environment. If the employer failed to better the unsafe work so employees should be instantly inform relevant authorities sections to cover with this job.
In fact, all relate people are conformity with all safety statute law and maintain proper coverage mechanism. The consequence of Hong Kong building industry accidents will be reduced and may be lower than other states.