This experiment was designed to look into and compare the effectivity of Allium sativum as the natural larvicide and Abate as the chemical larvicide against mosquito larvae. The effectivity of the larvicides was determined by the clip taken for all the mosquito larvae to be killed. The mosquito larvae were placed in separate plastic cups incorporating garlic infusion and Abate severally. They were monitored at fixed clip intervals and the clip taken for all the mosquito larvae to decease was recorded. The experiment was repeated with different concentrations of garlic infusion and Abate. A bipartisan ANOVA statistical trial showed that Abate is more effectual against mosquito larvae at 5 % significance degree compared to garlic, matching to the experimental hypothesis.
Research and Rationale
Mosquitos originate from the household Culicidae.13 Like many other insects, they go through a life rhythm from egg to larva, pupa and eventually grownup. They are by and large well-known as blood-sucking insects to human and they are responsible for many fatal diseases such as dandy fever, malaria and xanthous febrility. Some normally known genera are Aedes, Culex and Anopheles. Normally, mosquitoes breed in dead H2O like pools, fens and swamps and they thrive in warm climates.9
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In order to command mosquitoes, chemical larvicides are used. One normally used larvicide, Abate is applied to stagnant H2O to kill larvae of a broad scope of pathogen-carrying vectors ( mosquitoes ) to impede their development into grownup mosquitoes.2 Consequently, this prevents disease-carrying mosquitoes from hatching and conveying the pathogens to human via bites. Although the active ingredient of Abate, temephos is said to be effectual against mosquito larvae ( affects the nervous system by suppressing cholinesterase enzyme ) , it has its downsides.
Research has shown that certain mosquito species ( Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti ) have developed opposition for Abate.4 In add-on, rats exposed to temephus showed organic Ps poisoning while some fish are vulnerable to temephus. Temephus besides harm inverterbates such as runts and pediculosis pubiss. Accretion of temephus may besides do drastic impacts on cholinesterase activity involved in nerve signal transmission.6
Plant infusions such as those of garlic are possible options to Abate. Oppressing garlic releases thiosulfinates which convert into diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide if assorted with water.10 These two merchandises formed are effectual against mosquito larvae. Tests conducted in Bombay have shown that several species of mosquito larvae are susceptible to garlic infusions. Allicin helps to control malaria by forestalling the formation of circumsporozoite protein ( CSP ) of Plasmodium sporozoites to infect host cells.10 They are effectual, safe, environmental-friendly and economical.
The aim of this experiment was to look into and compare the effectivity of Allium sativum as the natural larvicide and Abate as the chemical larvicide against mosquito larvae. The consequences from this experiment indicate that the spread of pathogen-causing diseases by mosquitoes can be curbed by utilizing natural substances such as Allium sativum every bit good as chemical larvicide like Abate. Garlic is a possible option to Abate as it is effectual, easy available and eco-friendly. Although it might non be every bit fast-acting as chemical larvicides, Allium sativum has none of the downsides of Abate such as roll uping in the environment and killing other invertebrates. Therefore, more research is being conducted to look into the efficiency of Allium sativum as a larvicide.
Two-way ANOVA trial was used to analyze the informations to demo whether there is a important difference between the two larvicides. The Columns P-Value ( 8.58E-24 ) is less than the significance degree ( ? = 0.05 ) . There is a significance difference between the larvicidal belongingss of Abate and garlic. Abate is a stronger larvicide than garlic. Therefore, the experimental hypothesis is accepted and the void hypothesis is rejected.
From the analysis besides, the deliberate Sample P-value ( 3.62E-22 ) is less than the significance degree tested every bit good ( ? = 0.05 ) . This shows that there are statistically important differences between different concentrations of garlic and Abate. The Interaction P-Value ( 3.01E-19 ) indicates that there was a statistical important interaction between the larvicides and the concentrations used. Higher concentrations of both larvicides are more effectual against the mosquito larvae compared to lower concentrations.
The bipartisan ANOVA trial revealed that Abate is a stronger larvicide than Allium sativum. The Columns P-value is less than the significance value ( ? = 0.05 ) , which indicated that Abate and Allium sativum are significantly different in footings of larvicidal belongingss. This supports the experimental hypothesis that the effectivity of Abate is greater than that of Allium sativum.
Table 4 shows that for all Abate concentrations, the average clip taken for all the mosquito larvae to decease are shorter compared to that of Allium sativum. For both larvicides, as their concentrations increased, the average clip decreased. From the informations in Table 4, it can be evaluated that there is a bigger per centum difference in the average clip taken between garlic and Abate for the first two concentrations ( about 75 % ) . For 3 % , 4 % and 5 % concentrations, the per centum differences in average clip scope from 54 % to 58 % . This is illustrated in Figure 1. It clearly suggested that Abate is much more effectual than Allium sativum.
Abate is a chemical larvicide while Allium sativum is a natural larvicide. Both contain the active substances which are capable to kill mosquito larvae. Within 24 hours, all mosquito larvae would hold died in Abate every bit good as garlic solutions. It was hence non practical to cipher the figure of unrecorded mosquito larvae after 24 hours. Hence, the clip taken for the mosquito larvae to decease was used as a step of the substance ‘s effectivity. The shorter the clip taken, the more effectual the compound is. Dead larvae can be identified by touching them with the tip of a rod or dropper. They can non be induced to travel.
Abate contains temephos which is an organophosphate compound.11 It is able to suppress acetylcholinesterase enzyme which is required to halt a nervus impulse after it has crossed the synapse. As a consequence, there is a uninterrupted stimulation of the nervus, ensuing in shudders and uncoordinated movement.11 Garlic, when crushed and assorted with H2O, will change over thiosulfinates to diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide,10 both which are organosulfur compounds. They are effectual against mosquito larvae.
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The experiment showed that Abate is a more effectual larvicide compared to garlic. Both organophosphorus and organosulfur compounds worked against mosquito larvae. This explains that during the test experiment, after leting both solutions to sit for 24 hours, all mosquito larvae died. Nevertheless, the experimental consequences showed that Abate which contains organophosphorus compounds took a shorter clip to kill all the mosquito larvae compared to garlic ( organosulfur compound ) , connoting that organophosphorus compounds are more effectual against mosquito larvae. However, this may besides be due to the pureness of the active substances. The industrially-produced Abate contain pure temephos, whereas allicin found in Allium sativum is impure. For an active ingredient to work efficaciously, it has to be extracted and processed to give optimal consequences.
Although consequences showed that Abate is a more effectual larvicide, it should be noted that Abate is harmful to certain animate beings such as mice and fish, every bit good as to some invertebrates. Abate is besides apt to roll up within the natural environment, presenting hazards to human wellness. Garlic is an option to replace Abate as it is easy gettable, inexpensive and does non present injury to the environment. Nevertheless, garlic takes a longer clip to kill mosquito larvae compared to Abate. Time is a important factor when covering with disease-carrying mosquitoes such as Aedes aegypti. Therefore, although garlic might be effectual against mosquito larvae, it may non be practical to utilize such a time-consuming substance to relieve the job with mosquito larvae.
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To increase the truth, the base of the Allium sativum, together with its tegument was removed before the garlic cloves were weighed utilizing an electronic balance. The garlic cloves were pounded lightly utilizing a howitzer and stamp to forestall heat from destructing the chemical contents of Allium sativum, which might diminish the effectivity of Allium sativum. Disposable droppers were used to avoid taint of substances being tested and in the container used to roll up mosquito larvae. Besides, plastic cups were used alternatively of research lab glasswork in order to forestall taint as good. Each cup was closed with a perforated screen to guarantee that air flows into the cup. The cup was covered as a safeguard to forestall the debut of any mosquito into the environment in instance any larvae managed to finish its life rhythm.
Consequences from the tests showed that all mosquito larvae were killed by the larvicides within 24 hours. Therefore, if the figure of unrecorded mosquito larvae were noted after 24 hours, there would non be any important differences. As an option, the clip taken for the mosquito larvae to be killed was measured. It was besides impossible to run a stop watch to mensurate the clip as it would be hard to gauge when to halt it. Alternatively, the mosquito larvae were observed every five proceedingss and any dead larva was noted. Hence, the clip measured was appraisal as it would be difficult to look into on the larvae every minute for hours. To increase the preciseness of consequences, the experiment was repeated twice to obtain an mean clip.
It was besides impossible to distinguish the types of mosquito larvae. Different larvae species might hold different response towards larvicide. However, in this experiment, they were assumed to be of the same species. The larvae were besides of different yearss old. Larvicides might hold different effects on larvae of different yearss old. Besides, the solutions might non incorporate the exact concentration which was supposed to be tested. This is because garlic juice might non be able to be extracted and fade out in distilled H2O wholly. Abate granules besides did non fade out wholly in distilled H2O.
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An ethical issue that may be questioned is the inadvertent debut of mosquitoes into the environment. In this experiment, mosquito larvae are collected from pools, which are mosquito engendering evidences. These mosquito larvae are really prevented from turning into grownup mosquitoes, which may convey certain diseases. Larvae collected are placed in a covered container and are monitored to forestall inadvertent debut of mosquitoes in instance any larva managed to finish its life rhythm.
This probe could be modified by crunching the garlic cloves and fade out it in ethyl alcohol to organize garlic solution of a peculiar concentration. This would increase the dependability of the consequences. Besides, mosquito larvae of the same species could be used to guarantee that the effects of larvicides on that peculiar type of mosquito larvae merely are determined. This reduces the chance of consequences happening by opportunity. Mosquito larvae of a specific species could be cultured instead than roll uping them from a pool. The figure of mosquito larvae could besides hold been increased to obtain a more dependable consequence.
Chemical larvicide, Abate is significantly more effectual than Allium sativum in killing mosquito larvae. This was determined by the notably shorter clip taken by Abate to kill all the mosquito larvae than shown by Allium sativum.
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Beginning 2 contains information on agricultural merchandises such as vector control by BASF, the universe ‘s prima chemical company and a corporate group. Hence, it is trustable and dependable.
Beginning 4 is a diary, so contains sound scientific information. It contains a research note written by writers from several research universities. Therefore, it should be trustable and dependable.
Beginning 6 is a data sheet on temephos, the active ingredient in Abate. The data sheet is provided by IPCS INCHEM, cooperation between International Programme on Chemical Safety ( IPCS ) and the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety ( CCHOS ) . IPCS INCHEM compiles information sing direction of chemicals and their hazards based on informations from World Health Organization ( WHO ) and Food and Agriculture Organization ( FAO ) . Therefore, this beginning is dependable and non biased.
Beginnings 8 and 13 are published books. Therefore, they are believable beginnings with dependable contents written by noteworthy experts in the several Fieldss.
Beginning 10 is a trustable reappraisal as it is written by believable experts in the peculiar country.
Beginning 12 is a dependable and believable governmental web site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in modulating pesticides ; hence, all facts and information provided are updated.
Beginning 14 is guidelines for research lab and field testing of mosquito larvicides by World Health Organization, so should incorporate sound scientific information.
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