When we think
about weather, we usually compare it to the past. Whether that past be
yesterday, last week or last year. Climate Is defined as the weather conditions prevailing in an area in
general or over a long period. The Earth receives heat from the sun
and it also bounces back some of that heat to space. It has been a big
controversy of whether or not humans have impacted the climate increase that
has been seen over the past decade and scientists believe that there are
changes in the climate all over the world that will have serious consequences.
In fact, many ecological systems have been effected by the rise in climate.
According to Qin, Sun, Liu and Lu (2016), the temperate grassland vegetation in
China has showed an increase in its productivity because the temperatures have
been increasing. Whether or not this could potentially be a good thing for
certain habitats depends on the productivity.
Scientist have attempted
to compare the temperature from the industrial age (1850-1900) to current years
(1986-2005) to see how much of a rise in the temperature there is (Hawkins et
al., 2017, p.1844). To estimate the change in temperature, scientists averaged
out the scaled forcing from 1765-1800. It was determined that the preindustrial
era was actually cooler than the industrial age. It has been known that both warming
and cooling has happened in the past before humans were around. There were also
many factors that have affected the Earth’s climate. Factors such as; changes
in the sun’s intensity, volcanic eruptions, and heat-trapping gases. Oceanographers
and meteorologist can compare the climate patterns observed with patterns
developed using models of the atmosphere and ocean. They can then match the observed
and modeled patterns and identify the associated changes (Hawkins et al.,
dioxide is one of the main heat-trapping gases. Ultimately it is responsible for
most of the warming of the past severyal decades. An increase in the atmospheric
concentration of carbon dioxide has been noticed dramatically from the preindustrial
era. In the preindustrial era 280 parts per million compared to the 400 parts
per million (ppm) today of carbon dioxide concentration (Anderegg, 2010).
Although scientists have tried to warm people for years, it accelerated fast
and scientists soon became more focused on when the carbon dioxide
concentrations would reach above 400 ppm. According to Anderegg (2010), in
2012, the Artic reached 400 ppm. There are many natural climate drivers. Some
which include energy from the sun, aerosols from periodic volcanic eruptions,
dust, and salt spray. For example, a large volcanic eruption can have a cooling
influence as it spreads tiny particles into the stratosphere.
Human activity has
released large amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere
in the past century. Burning fossil fuels to produce energy is where most of
the gases come from. Greenhouse gases surround the Earth and trap energy in the
atmosphere which causes it to become warm. This is called the greenhouse
effect. When the greenhouse gases buildup it causes the climate to change and
can have negative effects to human health and the ecosystems. Having the
temperature increase can affect our water supplies, agriculture, power and
transportation systems, natural environment and even our own health and safety.
However, some of these changes are completely unavoidable. Carbon dioxide
actually stays in the atmosphere for nearly a century which will cause the
Earth to continue to warm up.
Global warming is
defined as a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the Earth’s
atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels
of carbon dioxide and other pollutants. It has taken a huge effect in the world
over the last century. The gases that have an effect on the atmosphere are
water vapor, carbon dioxide, dinitrogen-oxide and methane. Some of the sunlight
is reflected back into space and most of the sunlight is absorbed by the land, ocean
and atmosphere. What is absorbed is what heats the planet. There are more
greenhouse gas molecules in the atmosphere so more of the infrared energy
emitted by the surface is actually being absorbed by the atmosphere. When the
concentration of the greenhouse gases in increased, it makes the Earth’s atmosphere
a more efficient greenhouse.
the temperature has cool and warmed in the past, how rapidly it is warming
today is unusual. There are some natural and human activities that have contributed
to the increase in the temperature in the climate. Volcanic eruptions and
changes in the amount of solar energy are some of the natural contributions to
the climate change. Volcano eruptions have a huge effect because when it erupts
tiny particles that contain sulfur dioxide are released into the atmosphere.
Snow and ice also have a huge effect on the climate. When they are melted,
Earth’s climate warms and less energy is reflected. This actually causes more
warming. Plants and animals can also affect the climate changes. There are some
plants that can produce greenhouse gases that trap heat and help warm the